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24 Cards in this Set

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Xenopus leavis
frog
Unfertilized egg (3 characteristics)
Large egg (1-2 mm in diameter), Animal Hemisphere (top), Vegetal Hemisphere (bottom)
3 Results of cleavage:
1) Increase in # of cells (blastomeres) 2) Partitioning of cytoplasmic determinants 3) Cells occupy specific locations in the embryos
Development requires ____ _____________.
cell proliferation
MBT
Midblastula Transition
5 changes during MBT
1) Cell cycle length increases 2) begins at 12th (frog) division 3) Cells start to divide asynchronously 4) Cells start to move 5) Zygotic division begins
Two types of Cleavage Patters:
1) Holoblastic (complete) 2) Meroblastic (part is yolk)
3 cell movements
1) Invagination 2) Involution 3) Epiboly
Inturning of cell sheet over the basal surface of an outer layer.
Involution
The expansion of one cell sheet over the other cells.
Epiboly
Infolding of cell sheet into the embryo
Invagination
Frog Gastrulation:
inner layers (deep) = MESO
yolk-filled = ENDO
cells move down outside = ECTO
_______ are formed in pairs by segmentation of the mesoderm lying either side of the notochord.
Somites
Dorsal ________ forms the neural tube
ectoderm
Two types of triploblasts:
Protostomes, Deuterostomes
Notochord
A?
Neural Tube
B?
Somite
C?
Mesoderm
D?
Epidermis
E?
Yolky endoderm
F?
Archenteron
G?
_________, sac of the amniote egg in which waste materials from embryonic metabolism collect
allantois
_______, sac of the amniote egg which interacts with the outside environment, selectively allowing materials to reach the embryo
chorion