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25 Cards in this Set

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process whereby 2 sex cells (gametes) fuse
fertilization
4 major events of fertilization:
1) contact & recognition 2) prevention of polyspermy 3) genetic information of the gametes fuses 4) development starts
enzyme production is a function of the _____ _________
golgi apparatus
4 features of sperm formation:
1) cytoplasm is "jettisoned" 2) mitochondria collect around the base of the flagellum 3) microtubules form the axoneme 4) acrosome derives from golgi apparatus
sperm _________ is highly conserved among organisms
structure
Axoneme structure contains _ _______ & _ central _______ microtubules
9 doublet, 2, singlet
______ contains ATPases for energy
Dynein
a genetic syndrome lack of dynein on all ciliated and flagellated cells
Kartagener triad
Individuals affected with Kartagener triad are susceptible to bronchial infections due to their ________ ___________ _____.
immotile respiratory cilia
Males affected with Kartagener triad are sterile because their ________ ______.
immotile sperms
_________ ________ forms a fibrous mat around the Sea Urchin egg, contains eight glycoproteins, and mediates the sperm-egg recognition
Vitelline envelope
small projections that may help sperm entry into the Sea Urchin egg
Microvilli
homologous to the sperm acrosome in Sea Urchin egg (i.e. derived from golgi apparatus)
Cortical granule
external glocoprotein meshwork of Sea Urchin egg, involving attracting or activating sperm
Jelly layer
the thick extracellular matrix in the Hamster egg
Zone pellucida
layer of ovarian follicular cells in Hamster egg
Cumulus
innermost layer of cumulus cells in Hamster egg
Corona radiata
Cytoplasmic contents of the egg (5)
1) proteins 2) ribosomes & tRNA 3) messenger RNA 4) morphogenetic factors 5) protective chemicals
5 steps of recognition of egg and sperm:
1) the chemoattraction of the sperm to the egg by soluble molecules secreted by the egg 2) the exocytosis of the acrosomal vesibles to release its enzymes 3) the binding of the sperm to the extracellular envelope (vitelline layer or zona pellucida of the egg 4) the passing of the sperm through the xtra cellular envelope 5) fusion of egg and sperm cell membranes
Acrosomal reaction of the Sea Urchin
external
Acrosomal reaction in the Mouse
internal (after binding to zona pellucida)
chemotactic protein in Arbacia punctulata (Sea Urchin) that serves as an attractant to sperm.
Resact a 14-amino acid peptide
Species-specific regonition is mediated through ______ in sea urchins
bindin
An __ ___ ____________ (___) from the mouse zone pellucida binds the acrosomes of the mouse sperms and initiates the acrosomal reaction after sperm have bound to it.
83 kDa glycoprotein, ZP3
Steps of the ZP3 acrosomal rxn in mammals (5):
1) binding of sperm to ZP3 2) [Ca] increase in sperm 3) exocytosis of acrosome 4) inner acrosome bind to ZP2 5) egg cortical granules release their enzymes and one protein that alters the ZP2 which inhibits the other sperm/ZP2 binding