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42 Cards in this Set

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Why did snakes lose their necks and legs?
The expression of HoxC-6 & HoxC-8.
___________ is a process (or steps) of change.
Development
How structures change during the development of different organisms.
Comparative Developmental Biology
How changes in development cause and constrain evolutionary changes.
Evolutionary Developmental Biology
The study of anatomical abnormalities can reveal how normal development occurs.
Teratology
Describing patterns of growth and development with equations to predict/understand how they operate
Mathematical Modeling
New structures are formed de novo and arise progressively.
Epigenesis
each individual is fully formed within a germ cell and increases in size during development.
Preformation
Debacle of the preformation theory is due to:
(1). Better-quality microscopes
(2). The cellular theory formulated by Schleiden and Schwann
1st Principle of von Baer
1. The general features of a large group of animals appear ealier in development than do the specialized features of a small group.
2nd Principle of von Baer
Less general characters are developed from the more general, until finally the most specialized appear.
3rd Principle of von Baer
The embryo of a given species, instead of passing through the adult stages of lower animals, departs more and more from them.
4th Principle of von Baer
The early embryo of a higher animal is never like a lower animal, but only like its early embryo.
___________ (pigment cells) originate in the neural crest and then migrate to the epidermis.
Melanocytes
Migrating neural crest cells also give rise to __________ _______ and the _______ _______ (which is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system to secrete epinephrine)
peripheral neurons, adrenal medulla
__________ ____ _____ (which eventually give rise to the gametes) migrate to the gonad.
Primordial germ cells
_____ ____ _________ _____ migrate to the liver and bone marrow.
Blood cell precursor cells
7 Stages in Devlopmental cycle (of frog)
1) Fertilization 2) Cleavage 3) Gastrulation 4) Organogenesis 5) Larval Stages 6) Maturity 7) Gametogenesis
1) Fundamental Question of Developmental Biology
Cellular Differentation
2) Fundamental Question of Developmental Biology
Cellular Organization
3) Fundamental Question of Developmental Biology
Cellular Regulation
4) Fundamental Question of Developmental Biology
Reproduction
5) Fundamental Question of Developmental Biology
Evolution
6) Fundamental Question of Developmental Biology
Environmental Integration
Epidermal cells of skin develop from
(Outer surface) -- Ectoderm -- Gastrula
Neuron of Brain develops from
(Central Nervous System) -- Ectoderm -- Gastrula
Pigment cells develop from
Neural crest -- Ectoderm -- Gastrula
Notochord develops from
(Dorsal) - Mesoderm -- Gastrula
Bone tissue develops from
(Paraxial) -- Mesoderm -- Gastrula
Tubule cell of Kidney develops from
(Intermediate) -- Mesoderm -- Gastrula
Red blood cells develop from
(Lateral) -- Mesoderm -- Gastrula
Facial muscle develops from
(Head) -- Mesoderm -- Gastrula
Pancreatic cell develops from
(Digestive tube) -- Endoderm -- Gastrula
Thyroid cell develops from
(Pharynx) -- Endoderm -- Gastrula
Lung cell develops from
(Respiratory tube) -- Endoderm -- Gastrula
Sperm develops from
Germ Cells -- Gastrula
Egg develops from
Germ Cells -- Gastrula
Outer layer of embryo which forms the epidermis and nerves
Ectoderm
Middle layer of embryo which produces the blood, heart, kidneys, gonads, bones, and connective tissues
Mesoderm
Innermost layer of embryo which produces the digestive tube and its associated organs (including the lungs)
Endoderm
3 Approaches to Developmental Biology:
Genetic, Anatomical, and Experimental
5 Types of Fate Mapping & Lineage Analysis:
1) Direct observation of living embryo 2) Vital Dye marking 3) Radioactive labeling 4) Fluorescent Dyes (DiI) 5) Genetic marking