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42 Cards in this Set

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1) In mammalian fertilization, the acrosomal reaction of sperm is initiated at…
A) The zona pellucida
B) The cumulus layer.
C) The oocyte plasma membrane.
D) vitelline envelope.
E) The jelly layer.
A) The zona pellucida
2) In sea urchin fertilization, the acrosomal reaction of sperm is initiated at…
A) The zona pellucida
B) The cumulus layer.
C) The oocyte plasma membrane.
D) vitelline envelope.
E) The jelly layer.
E) The jelly layer.
(3-4) True (A) or false (B) about fertilization:
3) Oocytes often complete meiosis after sperm entry.
True
4) Release of Ca++ from internal stores in the oocyte is involved in both the cortical granule reaction and activation of egg metabolism.
True
(5-7) Match the polypeptide with its function (each can be used only once).
5) Resact ...
A) A receptor protein found on the sea urchin oocyte that initiates species-specific fusion.
B) A glycoprotein in the zona pellucida that initiates the acrosomal reaction.
C) A receptor protein found on the mammalian oocyte that initiates sperm-egg fusion.
D) A polypeptide secreted by oocytes that acts as a chemoattractant for sperm.
E) An extracellular protein found on the sea urchin sperm acrosomal process that initiates species-specific fusion.
D) A polypeptide secreted by oocytes that acts as a chemoattractant for sperm.
6) ZP3...
A) A receptor protein found on the sea urchin oocyte that initiates species-specific fusion.
B) A glycoprotein in the zona pellucida that initiates the acrosomal reaction.
C) A receptor protein found on the mammalian oocyte that initiates sperm-egg fusion.
D) A polypeptide secreted by oocytes that acts as a chemoattractant for sperm.
E) An extracellular protein found on the sea urchin sperm acrosomal process that initiates species-specific fusion.
B) A glycoprotein in the zona pellucida that initiates the acrosomal reaction.
7) Bindin...
A) A receptor protein found on the sea urchin oocyte that initiates species-specific fusion.
B) A glycoprotein in the zona pellucida that initiates the acrosomal reaction.
C) A receptor protein found on the mammalian oocyte that initiates sperm-egg fusion.
D) A polypeptide secreted by oocytes that acts as a chemoattractant for sperm.
E) An extracellular protein found on the sea urchin sperm acrosomal process that initiates species-specific fusion.
E) An extracellular protein found on the sea urchin sperm acrosomal process that initiates species-specific fusion.
8) Which factors in addition to the haploid nucleus are contributed by the sperm?
A) Mitochondria.
B) Centrioles (microtubule organizing center).
C) mRNAs.
D) none.
E) A and C
F) B and C
G) A and B
B) Centrioles (microtubule organizing center).
9) Which of the following is/are NOT part of the slow block to polyspermy in sea urchin?
A) Release of proteases from the cortical granules.
B) A change in electrical potential across the oocyte plasma membrane.
C) Formation of the fertilization envelope.
D) Formation of the hyalin envelope.
E) All are part of the slow block.
B) A change in electrical potential across the oocyte plasma membrane.
10) You discover a chemical compound (a drug) that binds physically to sodium (Na+) channels in the sea urchin oocyte plasma membrane. When you treat oocytes with this compound and then fertilize the oocytes, you note that polyspermy results. Based on this information, what is the most plausible (likely) effect of the drug?
A) Blocks release of cortical granules.
B) Binds to the sodium channels and prevents them from opening.
C) Binds to sodium channels and keeps them open at all times.
D) Blocks completion of oocyte meiosis.
B) Binds to the sodium channels and prevents them from opening.
(11-14) True (A) or False (B) about cells in early cleavage phase:
11) Lack of G phases.
12) Asynchronous cell division.
13) Rapid cell division.
14) Much cell movement.
11. True
12. False
13. True
14. False
(15-17) True (A) or false (B) about the mid-blastula transition:
15) Embryonic transcription begins.
16) Synchronous cell divisions.
17) G phases added to cell cycle.
15. True
16. False
17. True
18) Which of the following treatments of a sea urchin blastula would result in failure to specify skeletogenic micromeres?
A) Blocking nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin.
B) RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) of beta-catenin.
C) LiCl treatment to force beta-catenin to the nuclei of all cells.
D) A and B.
E) B and C.
D) A and B.
19) What happens when vegetal skeletogenic micromere cells are transplanted to the animal pole of a sea urchin embryo?
A) The transplanted skeletogenic micromere cells change fate to become ectodermal.
B) The transplanted skeletogenic micromere cells epibolize the embryo.
C) Normal development.
D) The animal pole cells are induced to become mesodermal and endodermal.
E) The animal pole cells are induced to become ectodermal.
D) The animal pole cells are induced to become mesodermal and endodermal.
(20-23). Which gastrulation movements are used by the following cells in sea urchin gastrulation?
20) Initial bending of the vegetal plate.
A) Epiboly
B) Invagination.
C) Involution.
D) Ingression.
E) delamination.
F) Convergent extension.
B) Invagination.
21) Vegetal plate primary mesenchyme cells.
A) Epiboly
B) Invagination.
C) Involution.
D) Ingression.
E) delamination.
F) Convergent extension.
D) Ingression.
22) Progression of the archenteron toward the animal pole after initial bending.
A) Epiboly
B) Invagination.
C) Involution.
D) Ingression.
E) delamination.
F) Convergent extension.
F) Convergent extension.
23) Animal pole ectodermal cells.
A) Epiboly
B) Invagination.
C) Involution.
D) Ingression.
E) delamination.
F) Convergent extension.
A) Epiboly
(24-27) In C. elegans, would ABp fates be induced (A) or not induced (B) by P2 in the following blastomere recombination experiments.
24) A wild-type P2 cell placed in contact with a apx-1/Delta mutant AB cell.
A - be induced
25) A wild-type P2 cell placed next to but not in contact with a glp-1/Notch mutant AB cell.
B - not induced
26) An apx-1/Delta mutant P2 cell placed in contact with a wild-type AB cell.
B - not induced
27) A wild-type P2 cell placed in contact with a mom-5/frizzled mutant AB cell.
A - be induced
28) The C. elegans AB blastomere divides to produce an anterior and a posterior daughter, both of which can be induced by P2 to express ABp cell fates. This experiment illustrates:
A) That P2 cell fate determination is autonomous.
B) That AB daughter cell fate determination is autonomous.
C) That P2 cell fate determination is non-autonomous.
D) The both AB daughter cells are an equivalence group.
D) The both AB daughter cells are an equivalence group.
32) The early cleavages (1-13) in Drosophila (fruit fly) involve:
A) Karyokinesis.
B) Cytokinesis.
C) Cytokinesis and karyokinesis.
A) Karyokinesis.
(33-37) When mutant, which group of Drosophila genes causes the following defects in development?
33) An embryo missing no segments, but the segments have no anterior-posterior differentiation.
A) Gap genes
B) Segment polarity genes
C) Maternal effect genes
D) Pair-rule genes
E) Homeotic genes
B) Segment polarity genes
34) An embryo missing each odd segment.
A) Gap genes
B) Segment polarity genes
C) Maternal effect genes
D) Pair-rule genes
E) Homeotic genes
D) Pair-rule genes
35) An embryo missing multiple contiguous segments in the middle.
A) Gap genes
B) Segment polarity genes
C) Maternal effect genes
D) Pair-rule genes
E) Homeotic genes
A) Gap genes
36) An embryo lacking all posterior abdominal segments.
A) Gap genes
B) Segment polarity genes
C) Maternal effect genes
D) Pair-rule genes
E) Homeotic genes
C) Maternal effect genes
37) An embryo with entire segments transformed to other segmental fates.
A) Gap genes
B) Segment polarity genes
C) Maternal effect genes
D) Pair-rule genes
E) Homeotic genes
E) Homeotic genes
(42-46) Would the following experiments with the amphibian frog Xenopus result in one dorsal embryonic axis (A), twinning of the dorsal embryonic axis (B), or no dorsal embryonic axis (a bellypiece) (C)?
42) Blockage of cortical rotation by UV irraditation.
C - no dorsal embryonic axis (a bellypiece)
43) Transplantation of a dorsal blastopore lip opposite the site of the Nieuwkoop center in the marginal zone.
B - twinning of the dorsal embryonic axis
44) Blockage of cortical rotation by UV irraditation and placement of a dorsal blastopore lip from a different embryo on the marginal zone.
A - one dorsal embryonic axis
45) Blockage of cortical rotation by UV irraditation followed by injection into the marginal zone of a mutant beta-catenin protein that always accumulates in the nucleus.
A - one dorsal embryonic axis
46) Treating the blastula to block nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin.
C - no dorsal embryonic axis (a bellypiece)
47) The Nieuwkoop Center is formed by which of the following?
A) Maternally-supplied -catenin activity localized to the future dorsal side of the embryo.
B) A mesoderm-inducing TGF/BMPsignal from vegetal cells.
C) An epidermal-inducing TGF/BMP signal from future ventral cells.
D) Blockage of ventral TGF/BMPand Wnt signals by the Organizer.
E) A and B.
F) A and D.
E) A and B.
48) The Xenopus dorsal blastopore lip organizer acts by which of the following?
A) Inducing dorsal cells using TGFBMP signaling.
B) Blocking TGF/BMP signaling from vegetal cells.
C) Blocking Wnt signaling from ventral cells.
D) Inducing dorsal cells using Wnt signaling.
E) A and D
F) B and C.
F) B and C.
(49-50). Fill in the blank. During Xenopus gastrulation, cells from the dorsal blastopore lip that form the pharyngeal endoderm and prechordal plate mesoderm induce anterior structures by inhibiting (49), and cells from the DBL that form notochordal mesoderm induce posterior structures by inhibiting (50).
A) BMPs
B) Wnts
C) Wnts and BMPs
49. C) Wnts and BMPs
50. A) BMPs
(29-31) In the experiments with C. elegans PAR proteins and mutants below, which experimental result best illustrates the following conclusions?
29) PAR-3 restricts PAR-2 to the posterior cortex.
30) PAR-1 is downstream of PAR-2 (PAR-1 does not affect posterior PAR-2 localization).
31) PAR-2 is required for PAR-1 localization to the posterior cortex.

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29. H)
30. D)
31. E)
(38-41) As diagrammed below, Hunchback and Caudal protein was detected by antibody staining in embryos of different mutants. Which experiment best illustrates the following conclusions?
38) Bicoid represses anterior Caudal translation

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F
39) Caudal translation is normally restricted to the posterior.

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B
40) Bicoid represses posterior Hunchback translation.

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G
41) Nanos represses posterior Hunchback translation.

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C