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57 Cards in this Set

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What forms the genital eminence?
Mesenchyme
What does the genital eminence become? How about after that?
Becomes genital tubercle. Genital tubercle elongates to form the primordial phallus.
What surrounds the cloacal membrane from the mesenchyme?
Urogenital folds.
What flanks the urogenital folds?
Labioscrotal swellings
What is the perineal serve as a point of?
Point of fusion between urorectal septum and cloacal membrane.
What genes are needed for forming external genitalia?
Hox, BMP-4, FGF-4
What does the outgrowth of the genital tubercle depend on? (TF)
ssh, FGF-8, FGF-10
What is formation of the male genitalia under the influence of? (Hormones)
Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone
What do the urogental folds from in the male?
Urethral grooves.
What covers the urogenital folds?
urogenital sinus endoderm.
What is the penile raphe?
Where the fusion of the genital folds occurs.
What does the penile raphe become?
Urethral seam.
What are the two sources of the urethral seam?
Endoderm of urethral plate from phallic portion of urogenital sinus.
What forms the prepuce?
Ingrowth of ectoderm.
What do the corpora cavernosa and spongiosa develop from?
Mesencyme of the phallus.
What is the scrotal raphe?
Fusion line between the labial scrotal swellings.
What is a hypospadia?
Opening of external urethral orifice on ventral surface of the penis.
What causes hydrospadias?
Inadequate production of androgens by testis or inadequate receptor sites for the hormone.
Where does a penoscrotal hypospadia take place?
At the meeting point between the penis and the scrotum.
Where does a perineal hypospodia take place?
Scrotum and length of the penile shaft
What is the clitorus formed from?
Primordial phallus.
Why does the urethra not become a part of the clitoris?
Urogenital folds do not fuse.
What do the labia minora develop from?
Unfused urogenital folds.
What do the labia majora develop from?
Unfused labial scrotal swellings.
What does the mons pubis develop from?
Labialscrotal swellings
What does the vestibule develop from?
Urogenital sinus.
What is th egubernaculum attached to?
Inferior pole of developing gonad and inferior portion of labial scrotal folds.
What is the processus vaginalus?
An evagination of the pertoneum.
What is the deep inguinal ring formed by?
Transversalis fascia.
What is the superficial inguinal ring formed by?
Opening through the external abdominis fasica
What are the 3 phases of testes development?
Initial, transabsominal, transinguinal.
What is the initial descent of the testes due to?
Testosterone.
What needs to be expressed for transabdominal descent?
Insl-3
What is needed for transinguinal descent?
Testosterone and gubernaculum
What does the cremaster muscle arise from?
Internal oblique
What is a person predisposed to with a persistant process vaginalis?
Congenital inguinal hernia
What part of the processus stays open during a hydrocele of spermatic cord?
Middle
What part of the processus vaginalis stays open during a hydrocele of the testis?
Lower
What forms the hydrocele of spermatic cord?
Secretions
What forms the hydrocele of testis?
Fluid from peritoneum
What is the canal of nuck?
Processus vaginalis staying open in a female.
What are the two things the gubernaculum forms?
Round ligament of the ovary and round ligament of the uterus.
Do true hemaphrodites have Barr bodies?
Yes!
What are the majority of true hemaphrotides? (sex)
Female or mixed
What type of genitalia do true hemaphrodites have?
Ambiguous genitalia
Which type of hermaphrodites lack barr bodies?
Male pseudohemaphrodites
What sort of gonads/genitalia do female psuedohermaphrodites have?
Ovaries with ambiguous genitalia.
What causes female pseudohermaphrodites?
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
What is a female pseudohermaphrodite characterized by?
Enlarged clitoris, fused labia, persistant urogenital sinus and occasionally clitoral urethra.
What causes male pseudohermaphrodites?
Low levels of testosterone and MIS synthesis by fetal testis.
Do paramesonephric structures persist in male pseudohermaphrodites?
YES!
What is Androgen insensitivity syndrome AKA?
Testicular feminization syndrome.
Do people with AIS have barr bodies?
NO!
What are people with AIS sex wise?
Genetically male.
What characterizes AIS as far as external genitalia?
Female external genitalia, vagin ends in blind pouch, no uterus, breasts develop, no menstruation, testis in abdomen and inguinal canal.
What causes AIS?
Defect in androgen receptors in genital tubercle, urogenital and labial scrotal folds.
What structures do people with AIS lack?
Oviducts, uterus and upper vagina due to secretion of MIS