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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
morula
solid ball of cells at the 16-32 stage
blastula
hollow ball of cells with a bastocoel
gastrula
after gastrulation with three germ layers
ectoderm
will become skin, hair, nails, brain
mesoderm
will become muscles, heart, respiration, and urinary systems
endoderm
will become lining of the disgestive, urinary, and respiratory tracks
gastrulation
ectoderm becoming endoderm
germ layers
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
blastocoel
hollow, fluid-filled cavity in the blastula
tissue
group of cells with similar structure and function
invagination
cells push into the blastocoel
archenteron
primitive gut which forms during gastrulation
blastopore
hole the blastula, becomes the anus
coelom
body cavity lined by mesoderm
coelom
becomes the thoracic and abdominal cavities
notochord
dorsal supporting rod which exists in all chordates sometime in their life history
notochord
becomes the vertebral column
nueral plate
becomes the spinal chord
somites
clumps of muscle around the nueral plate
somites
become the back muscles
neurulation
development of the nervous system and the brain in an embryo
tottipotency
ability of all cells to develop into an organism
maternal determinants
chemicals which influence the course of development
cytoplasmic segregation
the parceling of signals present in the egg cytoplasm to the cells which result from cleavage
cleavage
cell division without growth
induction
ability of one embryonic tissue to influence the development of another tissue by use of chemical signals
specialization
process by which cells become specialized in structure and function
morphogenesis
emergence of shape in tissues, organs, or an entire embryo
development
growth, morphogenesis, and specialization
homeotic genes
genes which control the overall body plan by controlling the fate of groups of cells during development
homeobox
nucleotide sequence located in all homeotic genes and serve to identify portions of the genome
chorion
carries out gas exchanges
amnion
provides protection in the form of amniotic fluid
allantois
collects nitrogenous wastes
yolk sac
provides nourishment in the form of proteins/lipoproteins
placenta
forms from the chorion and the uterine wall, allows nutrients and wastes to pass between the mother and the embryo