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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cells as Units of life-
what are gametes?

what is a zygote?

size of a typical cell?

how many cells for human dev?
2 seperate cells

a fused cell
beginning of individuality
unique genetic combination

10 um (0.01 mm)

1 cell to 100 trillion cells
major divisions of life-
two types of cells?

prokaryotic cells consist of?


what vs. what?
prokaryotic/ eukaryotic cells

prokaryotic: bacteria,no organelle-cell nucleus, unicellular

eukaryotic: w/organelle
plants, animals, fungi

unicellular vs. multicellular
what are the two types?

what do they each consist of?

animal-like: amoeba/paramecium

plant-like: green algae/diatoms
three main groups?

growth by what?

complexity by what?
plants, animals, fungi

growth by cell division

complexity by cell differentiation
cell division-
three types?

what do they each consist of?
binary fission:
prokaryotic cells

somatic cell division
asexual reproduction

gamete formation
sexual reproduction
cell differentiation-
how many types of human cells?

three basic categories?

what do they consist of?
210 types of human cells

germ cells:
gamete formation

somatic cells:
differentiated cells

stem cells:
ability for renewal and differentiation
mechanisms of cell differentiation-
receive what?
compete btwn what?
prod what to affect what?
1.Receiving diff chem signals
2.Competing btwn 2 identical cells
3.Prod chem signals
-to affect an entire group of similar cells
differential gene expression-
what type of cells?

what are expressed?

what are suppressed?

what are either? either what?

what kind of cells possess what?
muscle cells

genes for muscle proteins are expressed

genes for digestive enzyme proteins are suppressed

induced/ suppressed

specialized cells possess:
the entire genome
somatic cell nuclear transfer-
three types?

what kind of cells w/ what?

what occurs?
cloning of dolly
mammary gland cell
july 5, 1996:Genome to nucleus

somatic cell
w/ desired genes

nucleus fuses w/ denucleated egg cell
cloning technology-
two types of cloning? decribe.
reproductive/therapeutic cloning

creating a genetically identical individual
-asexual reproduction

creating genetically matched stem cells
-treating diseases via cell/ tissue replacement
human gestaton period-
how many wks?

how many what? called?

what happens in each?
39-41 wks

3 trimesters

1st-morning sickness

2nd-fetal movement

embryonic development-
three steps? describe.
undifferentiated cells
128 cells

blastula or blastocyst

tissue/organ/body plan
two aspects? describe.
uterine implantation:
IVF implantation

inner cell mass:
source of therapeutic stem cell
origin of stem cells-
three points?
therapeutic cloning
destruction of embryo
pluripotent stem cell
how many days after what?

formation of diff what?
10 to 14 days
after zygote formation

diff cell layers:
ectoderm (external layer)
commonalities in animal development-
what animals were studied?

what controls what? called?
worms, fruit flies, humans

genes control body pattern formation
homobox genes
fetal alcohol syndrome-
described when?

what kind of disorder?


when is it most susceptible?

developmental disorder


during 1st trimester
thalidomide tradedy-
marketed when? where?

reason? what does it do?

how many affected?

around the world except US

alters fetal development
during first 25-50 days of pregnancy

12,000 thalidomide
human embryonic development-
fertilization where?
eallopian tube

morula formation

day 6-blastocyst forms
day 10-gastrulation
day 12-head/ tail
week 4-arm buds
week 7-basic body pattern