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101 Cards in this Set

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acrosomal process
the protrusion of the acrosome that contains the acrosomal vesicle
acrosomal reaction
reaction in which the acrosomal vesicle emits proteins that that allow for an excavation of the jelly outside the egg
acrosomal vesicle
the part of the head of the sperm that releases proteins, which allow for an excavation of the jelly outside of the egg
acrosome
an anterior prolongation of a spermatozoon that releases egg-penetrating enzymes
allantois
a vascular fetal membrane of reptiles, birds, or mammals that is formed as a pouch from the hindgut and that in placental mammals is intimately associated with the chorion in formation of the placenta
amnion
a thin membrane forming a closed sac about the embryos and fetuses of reptiles, birds, and mammals and containing the amniotic fluid -- called also amniotic sac
animal pole
pole of the zygote that does not contain yolk
archenteron
the cavity of the gastrula of an embryo forming a primitive gut -- called also gastrocoel
bindin
the proteins that the acrosomal vesicle emits that make possible the acrosomal process
blastocoel
the cavity of a blastula
blastocyst
the modified blastula of a placental mammal
blastodisc
flattened disc of cells that sits atop the yolk in the blastula of the bird, and humans form this also
blastomeres
the "daughter cells" (quotes b/c the process is not absolutely mitosis) of the zygote
blastopore
the opening of an archenteron
blastula
an early metazoan embryo typically having the form of a hollow fluid-filled rounded cavity bounded by a single layer of cells
concept of determination
the fixation of the destiny of undifferentiated embryonic tissue
concept of differentiation
the sum of the developmental processes whereby apparently unspecialized cells, tissues, and structures attain their adult form and function
concept of induction
the process by which the fate of embryonic cells is determined or when cells are told to become mesoderm
cortical granules
the small particles found in the viscous (sticky) cortex, they fuse together with the plasma membrane and discharge their contents by exocytosis
cortical reaction
the reaction constituted by the cortical granules binding to the plasma, and the release of calcium triggers excocytosis
cytoplasmic determinants
mosaic, inherited sense of who you are
chorion
the highly vascular outer embryonic membrane that is associated with the allantois in the formation of the placenta
cleavage
the process under which a zygote begins to divide into two cells
concept of determination
the fixation of the destiny of undifferentiated embryonic tissue
concept of differentiation
the sum of the developmental processes whereby apparently unspecialized cells, tissues, and structures attain their adult form and function
concept of induction
the process by which the fate of embryonic cells is determined or when cells are told to become mesoderm
cortical granules
the small particles found in the viscous (sticky) cortex, they fuse together with the plasma membrane and discharge their contents by exocytosis
cortical reaction
the reaction constituted by the cortical granules binding to the plasma, and the release of calcium triggers excocytosis
cytoplasmic determinants
mosaic, inherited sense of who you are
chorion;
the highly vascular outer embryonic membrane that is associated with the allantois in the formation of the placenta
cleavage;
the process under which a zygote begins to divide into two cells
concept of determination;
the fixation of the destiny of undifferentiated embryonic tissue
concept of differentiation;
the sum of the developmental processes whereby apparently unspecialized cells, tissues, and structures attain their adult form and function
concept of induction;
the process by which the fate of embryonic cells is determined or when cells are told to become mesoderm
cortical granules;
the small particles found in the viscous (sticky) cortex, they fuse together with the plasma membrane and discharge their contents by exocytosis
cortical reaction;
the reaction constituted by the cortical granules binding to the plasma, and the release of calcium triggers excocytosis
cytoplasmic determinants;
mosaic, inherited sense of who you are
Organogenesis;
development of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm into organs and/or organ systems
differentiation;
the modification of different parts of an organism for particular function or the evolution of certain features of an organism
dorsal lip;
the margin of the fold of blastula wall that delineates the dorsal limit of the blastopore, constitutes the primary organizer, and forms the point of origin of chordamesoderm
ectoderm;
the outermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo
embryonic disc;
the part of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst from which the embryo of a placental mammal develops -- called also embryonic shield
endoderm;
the innermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo that is the source of the epithelium of the digestive tract and its derivatives and of the lower respiratory tract
exocytosis;
the release of cellular substances (as secretory products) contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and subsequent release of the contents to the exterior of the cell
chorion
the highly vascular outer embryonic membrane that is associated with the allantois in the formation of the placenta
cleavage
the process under which a zygote begins to divide into two cells
concept of determination
the fixation of the destiny of undifferentiated embryonic tissue
concept of differentiation
the sum of the developmental processes whereby apparently unspecialized cells, tissues, and structures attain their adult form and function
concept of induction
the process by which the fate of embryonic cells is determined or when cells are told to become mesoderm
cortical granules
the small particles found in the viscous (sticky) cortex, they fuse together with the plasma membrane and discharge their contents by exocytosis
cortical reaction
the reaction constituted by the cortical granules binding to the plasma, and the release of calcium triggers excocytosis
cytoplasmic determinants
mosaic, inherited sense of who you are
Organogenesis
development of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm into organs and/or organ systems
differentiation
the modification of different parts of an organism for particular function or the evolution of certain features of an organism
dorsal lip
the margin of the fold of blastula wall that delineates the dorsal limit of the blastopore, constitutes the primary organizer, and forms the point of origin of chordamesoderm
ectoderm
the outermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo
embryonic disc
the part of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst from which the embryo of a placental mammal develops -- called also embryonic shield
endoderm
the innermost of the three primary germ layers of an embryo that is the source of the epithelium of the digestive tract and its derivatives and of the lower respiratory tract
exocytosis
the release of cellular substances (as secretory products) contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and subsequent release of the contents to the exterior of the cell
extraembryonic membranes
situated outside the embryo proper: developed from the zygote but not part of the embryo
fast block to polyspermy
A depolarization of the egg that procedes very quickly. In the egg, Na+ channels open in the plasma membrane (BELOW the jelly coat/vitelline layer.) Normally, Na+ concentration is higher outside the cell than inside. So Na+ ions flow down their gradient into the egg and the plasma membrane depolarizes (positive charges neutralize the more negative charge inside the egg cytoplasm.)
fate map
a representation of the developmental history of each cell in the body of an adult organism. Thus, a fate map traces the products of each mitosis from the single-celled zygote to the multi-celled adult. The process of fate mapping was developed by Walter Vogt.
fertilization
the process that allows for the binding of a sperm to an egg, and is the origin of life. The process of union of two gametes whereby the somatic chromosome number is restored and the development of a new individual is initiated
fertilization membrane
resistant membranous layer in eggs of many animals that forms following fertilization by the thickening and separation of the vitelline membrane from the cell surface and that prevents multiple fertilization
gastmlation
During gastmlation, the three germinal cell. layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, are formed.
gastrula
an early metazoan embryo in which the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm are established either by invagination of the blastula (as in fish and amphibians) to form a multilayered cellular cup with a blastopore opening into the archenteron or (as in reptiles, birds, and mammals) by differentiation of the upper layer of the blastodisc into the ectoderm and the lower layer into the endoderm and by the inward migration of cells through the primitive streak to form the mesoderm
gray crescent
A cortical region of the newly fertilised egg of frogs and some salamanders that forms just after fertilization on the side opposite sperm penetration.
holoblastic cleavage
haracterized by cleavage planes that divide the whole egg into distinct and separate though coherent blastomeres <holoblastic eggs> <holoblastic cleavage>
inner cell mass
n early embryogenesis, the inner cell mass (abbreviated ICM and also known as the embryoblast) is the mass of cells inside the primordial embryo that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus. This structure forms in the earliest steps of development, before implantation into the endometrium of the uterus has occurred. The ICM lies within the blastocoele and is entirely surrounded by the single layer of cells called trophoblast.
invagination
the formation of a gastrula by an infolding of part of the wall of the blastula
involution
he formation of a gastrula by ingrowth of cells formed at the dorsal lip
metazoan
any of the animals that comprise the taxon Metazoa
meroblastic cleavage
characterized by or being incomplete cleavage as a result of the presence of an impeding mass of yolk material (as in the eggs of birds)
mesoderm
the middle of the three primary germ layers of an embryo that is the source especially of bone, muscle, connective tissue, and dermis
morphogen
a diffusible chemical substance that exerts control over morphogenesis especially by forming a gradient in concentration
morphogenesis
the formation and differentiation of tissues and organs--this follows organogenesis
morula
a globular solid mass of blastomeres formed by cleavage of a zygote that typically precedes the blastula
mosaic development
results from the autonomous specification of a cell's fate. These cells, instead of depending on cell-cell interactions, are determined by cytoplasmic factors contained within the cell itself. These cells will form a given structure even if they are moved to a new location and are exposed to cell-cell interactions and signals that differ from their original position. Most organisms contain tissues which may undergo one or both of these developmental mechanisms at a given time (Gilbert, 2003)
neural crest
the ridge of one of the folds forming the neural tube that gives rise to the spinal ganglia and various structures of the autonomic nervous system -- called also neural ridge
neural plate
a thickened plate of ectoderm along the dorsal midline of the early vertebrate embryo that gives rise to the neural tube and crests
neural tube
the hollow longitudinal dorsal tube that is formed by infolding and subsequent fusion of the opposite ectodermal folds in the vertebrate embryo and gives rise to the brain and spinal cord
notochord
a longitudinal flexible rod of cells that in the lowest chordates (as a lancelet or a lamprey) and in the embryos of the higher vertebrates forms the supporting axis of the body, that is almost obliterated in the adult of the higher vertebrates as the bodies of the vertebrae develop, and that arises as an outgrowth from the dorsal lip of the blastopore extending forward between epiblast and hypoblast in the middorsal line
organogenesis
the origin and development of bodily organs
pattern formation
pattern formation describes the mechanism by which initially equivalent cells in a developing tissue assume complex forms and functions by coordinated cell fate control. Pattern formation is genetically controlled, and often involves each cell in a field sensing and responding to its position along a morphogen gradient, followed by short distance cell-to-cell communication through cell signaling pathways to refine the initial pattern. In this context, a field of cells is the group of cells whose fates are affected by responding to the same set positional information cues.
pluripotent
(a property) the ability to give rise to several types of cells--different cells
positional information
The instructions that are interpreted by cells to determine their differentiation in respect of their position relative to other parts of the organism, for example digit formation in the limb bud of vertebrates.
primitive streak
An ectodermal ridge in the midline at the caudal end of the embryonic disk from which arises the intraembryonic mesoderm
regulative development
Regulative development generally occurs in early gastrulation when cells are induced to form different structures according to the cell-cell signaling interactions in a specific area of the embryo that lead to the conditional specification of a cell's fate. A cell undergoing regulative development can be transplanted to another part of the embryo and form whatever structure belongs in that area instead of the structure that it would have originally formed because it is competent to receive the different signals from the new cells around it.
retinoic acid
An acidified form of Vitamin A: There are cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding proteins and retinoic acid response elements that regulate gene transcription. Retinoic acid is thought to be a morphogen in chick limb bud development and in early development of the chick that probably accounts for its potent teratogenic action.
sequences of stages of development
The growing stage of organisms from embryo to adult. Also may refer to the law ascribed to von Baer, which was established in the late 1820s and/or early 1830s. He proved that the embryonal development of animals proceeds from more general and simple formal characters to more differential in the further course of development, acquiring more complicated features typical of a subgroup and finally of an individual.
slow block to polyspermy
begins within 10 seconds of fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. A compound called inositol triphosphate (IP3) causes the release of Ca++ from intracellular stores in the egg endoplasmic reticulum. Ca++ is first released at the site of sperm entry, and during the next minute, a wave of free Ca++ passes through the egg. This Ca++ results in the fusion of cortical vesicles with the egg plasma membrane, releasing their contents into the space surrounding the egg, called the perivitelline space. This raises the vitelline membrane, and inactivates bindin receptors on the vitelline membrane. Thus, any additional sperm are released from the vitelline membrane and no more bind.
somites
In the developing vertebrate embryo, somites (or primitive segments in older texts) are masses of mesoderm distributed along the two sides of the neural tube and that will eventually become dermis (dermatome), skeletal muscle (myotome), and vertebrae (sclerotome).
totipotent
Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembryonic tissues. Totipotent cells formed during sexual and asexual reproduction include spores and zygotes.
trophoblasts
invasive mestacizing placenta cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg.
trophoblastic
the property of having three primary germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and the ectoderm--humans have this as zygotes. Sea Urchins, frogs and birds (examples we've studied) have only the endoderm and mesoderm and then a blastula but no ectoderm.
vegetal pole
the side of the zygote that contains yolk and mRNA
vitelline layer
a structure directly adjacent to the outer surface of the plasma membrane, right after jelly exterior
yolk platelets
membrane-bound discs containing high concentrations of yolk found in eggs.
yolk plug
a mass of yolk cells found in the blastopore of the embryos of some vertebrates
yolk sac
source of fat on which the zygote feeds during development
zygote
a cell formed by the union of two gametes or broadly : the developing individual produced from such a cell, the fusion of egg and sperm or a fertilized egg cell