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45 Cards in this Set

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DEVELOPMENT THEORY
A SYSTEMATIC STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES AND GENERALIZATIONS THAT PROVIDES A COHERENT FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING AND EXPLAINING DEVELOPMENT
HOW DO THEORIES HELP US? (FURTHER SCIENCE)
1. THEORIES FORM THE BASIS FOR HYPOTHESES
2. THEORIES GENERATE DISCOVERIES
3. THEORIES OFFER INSIGHT AND GUIDANCE FOR EVERYDAY CONCERNS BY PROVIDING A COHERENT VIEW OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
GRAND THEORIES
COMPREHENSIVE THEORIES THAT HAVE TRADITIONALLY INSPIRED AND DIRECTED THINKING ABOUT DEVELOPMENT.
WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF GRAND THEORIES?
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY, BEHAVIORISM, AND COGNITIVE THEORY
MINITHEORIES
THEORIES TAHT FOCUS ON SOME SPECIFIC AREA OF DEVELOPMENT AND THUS ARE LESS GENERAL AND COMPREHENSIVE THAN THE GRAND THEORIES
WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF MINITHEORIES?
ACTIVITY THEORY, DISENGAGEMENT THEORY, AND EXCHANGE THEORY
EMERGENT THEORIES
THEORIES THAT BRING TOGETHER INFORMATION FROM MANY DISCIPLINES BUT THAT HAVE NOT YET COHERED INTO THEORIES THAT ARE COMPREHENSIVE AND SYSTEMATIC
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
A GRAND THEORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THAT HOLDS THAT IRRATIONAL, UNCONSCIOUS DRIVES AND MOTIVES, MANY OF WHICH ORIGINATE IN CHILDHOOD, UNDERLIE HUMAN BEHAVIOR
WHAT WERE FREUD'S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT? (BODY PART CENTERED)
INFANCY-ORAL STAGE
TODDLERHOOD-ANAL STAGE
PRESCHOOL YEARS-PHALLIC (PENIS) STAGE
PERIOD OF LATENCY
GENITAL STAGE IN ADOLESCENCE
KNOW ERIKSON'S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT.
TRUST VS. MISTRUST; AUTONOMY VS. SHAME & DOUBT; INITIATIVE VS. GUILT; INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY; INDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION; INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION; GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION; INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR
WHO IS THE FOUNDER OF BEHAVIORISM?
JOHN B. WATSON
BEHAVIORISM
A GRAND THEORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THAT FOCUSES ON THE SEQUENCES AND PROCESSES BY WHICH BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED.
AKA LEARNING THEORY
CONDITIONING
ACCORDING TO BEHAVIORISM, ANY PROCESS IN WHICH A BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
THE PROCESS BY WHICH A NEUTRAL STIMULUS BECOMES ASSOCIATED WITH A MEANINGFUL STIMULUS, SO THAT THE ORGANISM RESPONDS TO THE FORMER STIMULUS AS IF IT WER THE LATTER
AKA RESPONDENT CONDITIONING
WHO IS THE FOUNDER OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING?
IVAN PAVLOV
OPERANT CONDITIONING
THE PROCESS BY WHICH A RESPONSE IS GRADUALLY LEARNED VIA REINFORCEMENT OR PUNISHMENT
AKA INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING
WHOS IS BEST KNOWN FOR OPERANT CONDITIONING?
B.F. SKINNER
REINFORCEMENT
THE PROCESS IN WHICH A BEHAVIOR IS FOLLOWED BY RESULTS THAT MAKE IT MORE LIKELY THAT THE BEHAVIOR WILL BE REPEATED. THIS OCCURS IN OPERANT CONDITIONING.
HOW HAS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BENEFITED FROM BEHAVIORISM?
BY REALIZING IF SOME THINGS ARE LEARNED, THEY CAN BE UNLEARNED. TANTRUMS, PHOBIAS, AND ADDICTIONS
WHAT IS ONE THING THE WIRE MONKEY EXPERIMENT TAUGHT HUMANS ABOUT THEIR OWN CHILDREN?
THAT CRYING INFANTS SHOULD BE PICKED UP AND CODDLED EVEN IF NOT HUNGRY. CRADLING=LESS CRYING.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
AN APPLICATION OF BEHAVIORISM THAT EMPHASIZES THAT MANY HUMAN BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED THOUGH OBSERVATION AND IMITATION OF OTHER PEOPLE
MODELING
IN SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY, THE PROCESS IN WHICH PEOPLE OBSERVE AND THEN COPY THE BEHAVIORS OF OTHERS
SELF-EFFICACY
IN SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY, THE BELIEF THAT ONE IS EFFECTIVE; MOTIVATES PEOPLE TO CHANGE THEMSELVES AND THEIR CONTEXTS
COGNITIVE THEORY
A GRAND THEORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT THAT FOCUSES ON THE STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING, WHICH SHAPES PEOPLE'S ATTITUDES, BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS
AKA INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY
COGNITIVE EQUALIBRIUM
IN COGNITIVE THEORY, A STATE OF MENTAL BALANCE IN WHICH A PERSON IS ABLE TO RECONCILE NEW EXPERIENCES WITH EXISTING UNDERSTANDING
WHO IS BEST KNOWN IN COGNITIVE THEORY?
JEAN PIAGET
WHAT ARE PIAGET'S FOUR PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT?
SENSORIMOTOR,
PRE-OPERATIONAL,
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL,
FORMAL OPERATIONAL
COGNITIVE DISEQUILIBRIUM
AN IMBALANCE THAT INITIALLY PRODUCES CONFUSION
ASSIMILATION
REINTERPRETING NEW EXPERIENCES SO THAT THEY FIT INTO THE OLD IDEAS
ACCOMMODATION
REVAMPING OLD IDEAS TO INCLUDE NEW EXPERIENCES
SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
AN EMERGENT THEORY THAT HOLDS THAT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT RESULTS FROM THE DYNAMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN EACH PERSON AND THE SURROUNDING SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FORCES
APPRENTICESHIP IN THINKING
IN SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY, THE PROCESS BY WHICH NOVICES DEVELOP COGNITIVE COMPETENCIES THROUGH INTERACTION WITH MORE SKILLED MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY, OFTEN PARENTS OR TEACHERS, WHO ACT AS TUTORS OR MENTORS
GUIDED PARTICIPATION
IN SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY, THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SKILLED PERSON HELPS A NOVICE LEARN BY PROVIDING NOT ONLY INSTRUCTION BUT ALSO A DIRECT, SHARED INVOLVEMENT IN THE LEARNING PROCESS
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
IN SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY, THE RANGE OF SKILLS THAT A LEARNER CAN EXERCISE AND MASTER WITH ASSITANCE BUT CANNOT YET PERFORM INDEPENDENTLY
WHO IS BEST KNOWN FOR SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY?
LEV VYGOTSKY
WHAT ARE SOME CRITISMS OF SOCIOCULTRUAL THEORY?
OVERLOOKING DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES THAT ARE NOT PRIMARILY SOCIAL; NEGLECTS THE ROLE OF GENES
EPIGENETIC THEORY
AN EMERGENT THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT THAT EMPHASIZES THE INTERACTION OF GENES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
PERFORMISM
THE BELIEF THAT EVRY ASPECT OF DEVELOPMENT IS SET IN ADVANCE BY GENES AND THEN IS GRADUALLY MANIFESTED IN THE COURSE OF MATURATION
SELECTIVE ADAPTATION
THE IDEA THAT HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS GRADUALLY ADJUST TO THE ENVIRONMENT
ETHOLOGY
THE STUDY OF PATTERNS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR, PARTICULARLY AS THAT BEHAVIOR RELATES TO EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS AND SPECIES SURVIVAL
ECLECTIC PERSPECTIVE
THE APPROACH TAKEN BY MOST DEVELOPMENTALISTS, IN WHICH THEY APPLY ASPECTS OF EACH OF THE VARIOU THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT RATHER THAN ADHERING EXCLUSIVELY TO ONE THEORY
NATURE
A GENERAL TERM FOR THE TRAITS, CAPACITIES, AND LIMITATION THAT EACH INDIVIDUAL INHERITS GENETICALLY
NURTURE
A GENERAL TERM FOR ALL THE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES THAT AFFECT DEVELOPMENT AFTER AN INDIVIDUAL IS CONCEIVED
WHAT ARE SOME REASONS THAT AD/HD IS NATURE RELATED?
USUALLY BOYS, CLOSE MALE RELATIVES HAVE SAME PROBLEM, OVERACTIVE IN CONTEXT, CAN CALM DOWN WITH STIMULANTS
WHAT ARE SOME REASONS THAT AD/HD IS NURTURE RELATED?
RATE OF DIAGNOSIS INCREASED IN US; RATES ARE MUCH HIGHER IN SOME CLASSES THAN OTHERS; NO TESTS AVAILABLE TO DIAGNOSE