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67 Cards in this Set

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Attachment
an especially close affectional bond formed between living creatures
Intraorganismic Perspective
the theory, first espoused by Bowlby, that infants possess innate mechanisms that foster and promote the development of attachment. Such mechanisms are believed to have been naturally selected, as they have survival value
Ethology
the study of behavior from a biological point of view, characterized by the study of animals in their natural environments
Imprinting
As used by ethologists, a species-specific bonding that occurs within a limited period early in the life of the organism and that is relatively unmodifiable thereafter.
Critical Period
A specific time during an organism’s development when certain experiences will have an effect and after which the effect can no longer be obtained through exposure to the experience.
Attachment-Exploration Balance
Term used by Ainsworth to describe the interplay between the child’s desire to be attached and the child’s need to explore the environment.
Secure-Base Phenomenon
Term used by Ainsworth to described the child’s tendency to use the attachment figure as a secure base of operations from which to explore the environment
Secure Attachment
Most common form if attachment observed by Ainsworth- Securely attached children responds happily to their mother’s return, greet her and stay near her for a while
Anxious/Resistant Attachment
A form of attachment observed by Ainsworth in which children approach their returning mothers, cry to be picked up, and the struggle to be free. Their behavior is ambivalent; they appear to which to approach and avoid their mothers simultaneously
Anxious/Avoidant Attachment
A form of attachment observed by Ainsworth in which children do not approach and if fact actively avoid- their returning mothers
Social Referencing
The use of emotional signals or cues from others as a guide for one’s own behavior in ambiguous situations
Discrete Emotional Theory
A view of emotional development that has as its central premise that all basic emotions are present and functional in newborns or very shortly after birth
Separation Anxiety
Fear of being separated from the care giver; a form of anxiety the usually manifests itself in children between the ages of 7 and 30 months. Separation anxiety is usually its strongest at 18 months of age
Stranger Anxiety
a fear of unfamiliar individuals that most infants develop around 6 months of age
fixed-response pattern
a species-specific response pattern that is presumed to have survived value for the organism and is elicited by a releaser stimulus
stimulus
anything that can be sensed, for example, visible light or audible sound
releaser stimulus
a stimulus that sets off a cycle of instinctive behavior; also called a sign stimulus
species-specific behavior
inherited behavior characteristic of one species of animal
behavior theory
a view that behavior can be explained as the result of learning and experience and that an understanding of internal events or constructs such as the mind are unnecessary
contiguous association
the occurence of two events in time such that they are temporarily associated. In conditioning, the presentation of two or more stimuli within a certain time frame or the presentation of a stimulus within a certain time following a response
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a stimulus that normally evokes an unconditioned response, such as the food that originally caused Pavlov's dogs to respond with salivation
unconditioned response (UR)
a response made to an unconditioned stimulus; for example, salivation in response to food
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus acquires the ability to produce a similar response
conditioned response (CR)
a learned response similar to a reflex but elicited by a conditioned stimulus owing or the previous association of the conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus
reinforcement (in classical conditioning)
any increase in the ability of a conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response owing to the association of the conditioned stimulus with another stimulus (typically an unconditioned stimulus). In the classical conditioning process, a stimulus is reinforced
classical conditioning
an experimental learning procedure in which a stimulus that normally evokes a given reflex is continually associated with a stimulus will eventually evoke the reflex when presented by itself
contingency detection
the process by which an organism discriminates between stimuli that are present only when the US is presented and those that are present both when the US is presented and when it is not. The result is that the organism can rely on the sensing of the stimulus that is present only when the US is presented to predict that the US will soon appear
stimulus generalization
the process by which once a stimulus has come to elicit or cue a response, similar stimuli may also elicit or cue the response, although not usually as effectively
counterconditioning
a technique used by behavioral therapists to eliminate unwanted behavior through new associations, extinction, or punishment, while promoting the acquistion of more appropriate behavior in place of the old
extinction
the classical conditioning, the elimination of the power of the conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response. Classical extinction will occur if the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without being reinforced through further association with the unconditioned stimulus
affective conditioning
an associative learning process in which emotional appraisals of a stimulus are altered by pairing the stimulus with one or more other stimuli that already have an emotional effect. Attitudes and beliefs often are influenced by this.
law of effect
thorndike's principle that responses associated with pleasant consequences tend to be repeated, while those associated with discomforting consequences tend to be eliminated
operant conditioning
skinner's term for changes in behavior that occur as a result of consequences that reinforce or punish emitted responses. These responses are classified according to how they operate on the environment. They are in turn shaped by further environmental experiences. Also known as instrumental learning
operant
skinner's term for any emitted response that affects the environment. Operants are classified or grouped not according to the particular muscular combinations involved in creating the response but according to their effect on the environment. Thorndike's case used the same operant when they pressed the treadle that opened their cage, regardless of which paw or muscles they used
reinforcement (in operant conditioned)
an event that strengthens the response that preceded it. Operant (instrumental) conditioning is a process by which a response is reinforced
shaping
a method of modifying behavior by reinforcing successive approximation toward the goal behavior
social learning
learning by observing the actions of others
model
in social learning theory, anyone who demonstrates a behavior that others observe
behaviorism
the school of psychology that views learning as the most important aspect of an organism's development. Behaviorists objectively measure behavior and the way in which stimulus-response relationships are formed
behavior modificaiton
a set of procedures for changing human behavior, especially by using behavior therapy and operant conditioning techniques
grammar
a set of rules that determines how sounds may be put together to make words and how words may be put together to make sentences
phonation stage
a stage of language acquisition that develops between birth and 2 months of age. During the stage, infants often make comfort sounds composed of quasi vowels
phones
the smallest units of vocalized sound that do not affect meaning but can be discriminated
phonemes
the smallest units of speech that can affect meaning
prelinguistic phrases
approximately 3-second long utterances of phones or phonemes that possess the rhythm, intonation, and structure that underlie human speech. First spoken typically by infants between the ages of 2 and 4 months
gooing stage
a stage of language acquisition that typically occurs between the ages of 2 and 4 months. During this stage, infants combine the quasi vowels from the phonation stage with harder sounds that are precursors of consonants
expansion stage
a stage of language acquisition that typically occurs between the ages of 4 and 7 months. During this stage, infants produce many new sounds and rapidly expand the number of phonemes they use, giving rise to babbling
rasberry
in social discourse it is an explosive sound caused by the rapid expulsion of air from the mouth
phoneme constancy
a perceptual ability that develops in infancy in which a phoneme, although spoken or pronounced differently by different individuals, is perceived as a single entity regardless of speaker
cononical stage
a stage of language acquisition that typically occurs between the ages of 7 and 10 months and is typified by an increase in babbling and the production of cononical syllables (make of consonant and vowel sounds of certain intensities). Duplicated sequences such as "dadada" or "mamama" also mark this stage
contraction stage
a stage of language acquisition that typically occurs between the ages of 10 and 14 months. It is so named because during this time, infants begin to narrow their phoneme production to the phonemes common to the language to which they are exposed. During this stage, infants also acquire the pacing and rhythm of their language
syntactic bootstrapping
a process of word learning by which children use the syntax surrounding an unknown word to narrow down and constrain possible interpretations allowed by the circumstances of the situation they are experiencing
one-word stage
the universal stage in language development in which children's speech is limited to single words
naming
a development of early childhood in which the child begins pointing out objects and calling them by name.
fast mapping
the ability of children to rapidly narrow down the correct meaning of a word
syntax
the body of linguistic rules that makes it possible to relate a series of words in a sentence to the underlying meaning of that sentence; that is, the rules governing word order in a language (sentence structure).
phonology
the study of how sounds (phonemes and phones) are put together to make words
holophrase
a possible semantic statement made by children in the one-word stage when they utter single words
duo
a two-word utterance made by children during the two-word stage
two-word stage
the universal stage of language development in which children's experiences are limited to two-word utterances
telegraphic speech
pattern of speech that develops following and including the two-word stage, in which english-speaking children rely on a grammar of strict word order to convey their meaning and do not use conjunctions, prepositions, or other function words
grammatical morphemes
words or parts of words that help add meaning to a sentence and that are acquired by children generally between the ages of 2 1/2 and 5 years
caretaker speech
a speech pattern used in addressing others who are obviously less competent in their speech than is the speaker. short, simple sentences with a high pitched voice.
pidgin
a simplified form of speech typically derived from a mixture of two or more languages.
creole
a mixture of language that develops when groups speaking different languages have prolonged contact.
spoonerism
an unintentional transposition of sounds in a sentence, for example, "People in glass houses shouldn't stow thrones."
language acquisition device (LAD)
as hypothesized by Noan Chomsky a neural structure inborn in every healthy individual that is preprogrammed with the underlying rules of a universal form of grammar