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383 Cards in this Set

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During the play years, children become ___ as the lower body __ and baby fat turns to ___
slimmer
lengthens
muscle
A typical 6 year old
At least 3.5 ft tall
40-50 lbs
lean, not chubby
"just right"
Many young children are compulsive about daily routines, including meals
myelination
process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses
Corpus Callosum
A long band of nerve fibers that conect the left and right hemispheres of the brain
Lateralization
Specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain
Left handed adults tend to have a ___ corpus callosum
thicker
___ brain controls logical reasoning, detailed analysis and the basics of language
Left
___ brain controls generalized emotions and creative impulses
Right
Prefrontal cortex
Higher order cognition, planning and complex forms of goal directed behavior
Preservation
Tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time
3 parts of Limbic system
Amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus
Preservation
Tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time
Amygdala
Registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety
3 parts of Limbic system
Amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus
Amygdala
Registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety
Hypothalamus
Responds to the hippocampus and amygdala to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
Hippocampus
Central processor of memory, especially of locations
Hippocampus
Central processor of memory, especially of locations
More children die of ___ than from any other cause
violence - accidental or deliberate
3 levels of prevention
primary, secondary and tertiary
Hypothalamus
Responds to the hippocampus and amygdala to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
Primary prevention
overall situation
For preschoolers, fatal accidents are more likely to involve:
poision, fire, choking or drowning
Secondary prevention
Specific to case
More children die of ___ than from any other cause
violence - accidental or deliberate
3 levels of prevention
primary, secondary and tertiary
For preschoolers, fatal accidents are more likely to involve:
poision, fire, choking or drowning
Primary prevention
overall situation
Secondary prevention
Specific to case
Tertiary prevention
After an injury
Child maltreatment
Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18
Warning signs of abuse
Delayed Development
Fearful, defensive
Withdrawn and self critical
Permanency Planning
Efforts by authorities to find a home that will nurture the child until adulthood
Egocentric
Understanding only your own perspective
4 obstacles to logical operations
Centration, Focus on Appearance, Static reasoning and irreversibility
Centration
Focus on one aspect of the situation to the exclusion of all others
Static reasoning
The world is unchanging
Irreversibility
Nothing can be undone
Conservation
Idea that the amount of a substance remains the same, when its appearance changes
Vygotsky's theory
Social Learning
Apprentice in thinking
Cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of a society
Zone of proximal development
Skills the person can perform with assistance, but not independently
Scaffolding
Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities
Language advances thinking in two ways
Private speech
Social Mediation
Private Speech
Internal dialogue
Social Mediation
Refine skills through both formal instruction and casual conversation
Theory-Theory
Children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories
Theory of mind
A person's theory of what other people might be thinking
Fast mapping
Speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by mentally charting them into categories according to their meaning
Logical extension
After learning a word, children use it to describe other objects in the same category
Overregularization
The application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur
Language shift
Becoming more fluent in the new language than in the home language
Child centered education programs
Play and explore
Creativity
Montessori Schools
Reggio Emilia Approach
Montessori Schools
Emphasize individual pride and accomplishment
Reggio Emilia Approach
Small group of children become engaged in long term projects of their choosing
Teacher Directed Programs
There is a clear distinction between the serious work of schooling and the cozy play of home
Emotional regulation
Learning when and how to express emotions is the preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between 2 and 6
Erikson's 3rd stage
Initiative vs. guilt
Children begin new activities and feel guilty when they fail
Self esteem
How a person evaluates his or her own worth
Self Concept
Understanding of who you are
Maturity of guilt/shame
Guilt means that people blame themselves because they have done something wrong;
Shame is the feeling that others are blaming them;
guilt is more mature
Intrinsic motivation
Goals or drives that come from inside
Extrinsic motivation
Need for rewards from outside
Psychopathology
Illness or disorder that involves the mind
With increased social awareness and decreased egotism, 2 other emotions develop:
Empathy and Antipathy
Empathy
Ability to understand emotions of another person
Antipathy
Dislike or even hatred of other people
Prosocial behavior
Being helpful and kind without gaining any obvious benefit
Antisocial behavior
Deliberately hurting another
Instrumental aggression
Intended to get or keep something
Reactive aggression
Retaliation
Bullying aggression
Deliberately hurt
Aggression becomes less ___ but more ___ with time
common
hurtful
Parents differ on 4 dimensions
Expressions of warmth
Strategies for discipline
Communication
Expectations for maturity
3 parenting styles
Authoritarian
Permissive
Authoritative
Sex differences
Biological differences between males and females in organs, hormones and body type
Gender differences
Differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that originate in culture
Psychoanalytic Theory - 3rd stage
Phallic stage
Penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure
Oedipus complex
Unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mother's exclusive love
Identification
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else
Behaviorism
Virtually all gender roles are learned
Cognitive Theory on gender
Children develop a mental set, gender schema, which biases their views of whatever experiences they have
Sociocultural Theory on gender
Every society has powerful values and attitudes regarding preferred behavior for women and men
Androgyny
A balance within a person of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics
Overweight
BMI above 85th percentile
Obesity
BMI above 95th percentile
Asthma
Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that makes breathing difficult
Selective attention
Ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others
Automatization
Repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions until it becomes routine
Aptitude
Potential to master a particular skill
Achievement tests
Measures mastery or proficiency in a subject
Flynn Effect
Rise in average IQ scores over the decades
Mental retardation
30 years ago, the definition was an IQ below 70
3 distinct types of intelligence
Academic, Creative, Practical
Dyslexia
Unusual difficulty with reading
Autism
Inability to relate to other people normally, extreme self absorption and an ability to acquire normal speech
Autistic spectrum disorder
Any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impaired communication and abnormal play
Asperger Syndrome
Unusually intelligent in their specialized area and speech is close to normal, but social interaction is impaired
Piaget's 3rd cognitive stage
Concrete Operational Thought
Concrete Operational Thought
Ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions
Classification
Logical principle that things can be organized into groups according to some characteristic thing they have in common
Identity
Logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change
Reversibility
Things can return to their original state
Sensory memory
Stores incoming stimuli for a split second after they are received, to allow them to be processed
Working memory
Where current conscious mental activity occurs
Long term memory
Virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely
Knowledge base
A body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area
Control processes
Mechanisms that put memory, processing speed and the knowledge base together
Metacognition
Thinking about thinking
Pragmatics
Practical use of language;
Using the appropriate code in each context
Total Immersion
Instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second majority language
Hidden curriculum
Unrecognized lessons that children learn in school
Phonics
Teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations
Whole language approach
Encouraging early use of all language skills
I - self
Self as subject, person who thinks, acts and feels independently
Me - self
Self as object, a person reflected, validated and critiqued by others
Social comparison
The tendency to assess one's abilities, achievements, social status and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers
Culture of children
Habits, styles and values that characterize children as distinct from adult society
Deviancy training
Children show each other how to avoid adult restrictions
Social efficacy
If people come to believe that they can affect their circumstances; this belief then leads to action that changes the social context
Kohlbergs levels of moral reasoning
Preconventional, Conventional and Postconventional
3 common values among 6 to 11 year olds
Protect your friends
Don't tell adults what's happening
Don't be too different from your peers
Neglected
Ignored but not shunned
Aggressive - Rejected
Antagonistic and confrontational
Withdrawn rejected
Rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn and anxious behavior
Social cognition
Ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior
Effortful control
Modifying impulses and emotions
Bullying
Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal or social attack on a weaker person
Bully victims
Someone who attacks others and is attacked as well
Family structure
The legal and genetic relationships among relatives in the same home
Family function
The way a family works to care for its members
5 functions of families
Provide basic necessities
Encourage learning
Develop self respect
Nurture peer relationships
Ensure harmony and stability
2 factors of family trouble
Low income
High conflict
Latency
Emotional drives are quiet and unconscious and sexual conflicts are submerged
Erikson's 4th stage
Industry vs. Inferiority
Resilience
Capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress
Between 2-6, children grow
approx. __ inches and __ lbs per year
3
4.5
By age 6, avg child is __ lbs
46
Most influential predictors of body size
Health care, genetics, and nutrition
Body size: boys are...
More muscular, have less body
fat, slightly taller and heavier
By age 5, brain is __% of adult weight
90
Myelination of corpus callosum by age...
8
Maltreatment is less likely in communities where...
children are seen as asset;
child care is considered responsibility of community;
young children are not expected to be responsible for their actions; violence in any context is disapproved
Maltreating parents tend to be:
less trusting
less self-assured
less adaptable
Consequences of maltreatment
slower to speak - underweight - less able to concentrate - behind in school - less friendly - more aggressive
Only about __% of abused children grow up to be abusers
30
Abusive families can be classified as (4):
vulnerable
restorable
supportable
inadequate
Vulnerable abusive family
Surrounding a crisis, but can go back to normal functioning
Restorable abusive family
Problem is more chronic, but still can function
Supportable abusive family
Can function but needs regular intervention from helping professions
Inadequate abusive family
Abuse is not going away, need to take away parental rights
Limitations of Preschool Thinking
Egocentrism
Centration
Precausal Reasoning
Distinguishing appearance from reality
Precausal reasoning
Not always reasoning logically, sometimes confuse cause and effect
Reconsidering Piaget and Conservation...
Maybe ids can conserve younger than 5
3 number tasks to master
one-to-one correspondence
stable order
cardinality
One to one correspondence
touching one object for each number that is counted aloud.
Stable order
2 follows 1
11 follows 10
Cardinality
The number of the last object is your outcome
Factors Affecting Numeracy
brain maturation
family
language
Preschoolers have good memories but they are...
Erratic
Scripts
An expected sequence of events
Role of parents to help memory
give advanced warning
sequence questions
ask specific questions
provide cues
elaborate
At age ___ kids start to know that other people's thoughts can be different than their own
4.5 to 5
Theory of mind
Knowledge and awareness of both your own thoughts and the thoughts of others
At age 2 you have an awareness of others...
emotions
3-4: you can distinguish between __ events and __
events
mental
physical
important milestone: preschoolers realize that mental states don’t always reflect ___
reality;
ex: deception and wrong thoughts
4-5: distinguish between objective __ and subjective __
reality
understanding
Factors affecting theory of the mind:
brain maturation, language ability,
presence of older siblings, culture
Language tasks to master in early childhood (2-6)...
Sounds
Vocabulary
Rules
Syntax
Syntax
Language rules for ordering things
Role of adults to help with early childhood language...
Slow their speech
Use clear sentences
Use repetition
Model elaborate and correct usage
Effects of bilingualism
Less egocentric
More advanced in their theory of mind
Initially slower vocabulary growth
According to Vygotsky, __ and __ are vital to cognitive development
language
social interaction
4 traits of good preschools:
Low teacher-student ratio
Trained staff
Cognitive development not behavior control
Space allowing for constructive play
4 areas to develop early childhood self control
Movement
Emotion
Reflective Thought
Delay of gratification
Impulse control is a ___, not a ___
resource
skill
Those who delayed taking the marshmallow, became...
More socially competent
Personally effective
Self-assertive
Better able to cope with frustrations
Better able to handle stress
Less likely to give up in the face of difficulty
Those who could not resist the marshmallow became...
More often resisted social contacts
More stubborn, indecisive
More easily upset by frustration
Lower self-esteem
More mistrustful and resentful about not “getting enough”
Overreact with a sharp temper
Baumrind's 4 parental behaviors
Nurturance, control, communication and maturity demands
Good punishment
Positive reinforcement of desired behaviors
Understand child’s capabilities
Clear rules and reasons for them
Punishment should be immediate
Remove from troubling situation
Initiative (vs. guilt)
Active investigation of the world seen as a pleasurable experience
(Initiative vs.) Guilt
belief that some wrong has been
committed or some sanction violated
At age 2 gender related ___ are apparent
preferences
At age 4 certain __ and ___ are believed to be gender appropriate
toys
roles
Age 5: believe gender constancy
maleness and femaleness will not change
Freudian perspective on gender
Identify with same sex parent
Behaviorist perspective on gender
Through learning and punishment
Cognitive perspective on gender
Mental frameworks, gender schemas
Socio cultural perspective on gender
Messages sent from culture
Epigenetic perspective on gender
Genes and environment interact
Risk factors for asthma
- A family history of asthma or allergies
– Frequent respiratory infections
– Low birth weight
– Exposure to tobacco smoke before or after birth
– Black or Puerto-Rican ethnicity
– Being raised in a low-income environment
Causes of asthma
• Genetics
• Reduction in childhood infections that protect against asthma
• Urbanization, cockroaches, less outdoor play
• Triggers: allergens
Primary prevention of asthma
better ventilation, more
outdoor play areas
Secondary prevention of asthma
reducing allergens, breast
feeding
Tertiary prevention of asthma
medical interventions (injections,
inhalers)
Treatment of Asthma
• Avoiding asthma triggers
• Medication
• Monitoring daily symptoms
Stimuli that incite asthmatic
episodes
• Allergens
• Pharmacologic stimuli
• Air pollution (ozone, nitrogen dioxide)
• Occupational factors
• Infections (RSV is most common infectious agent)
• Exercise
• Emotional stress
ADHD symptoms
• Inability to pay attention
• Inability to sit still
• Impulsiveness
Impact of ADHD
Poor school performance, difficulty keeping friends, low self-esteem
Causes of ADHD
Less activity in portions of brain that control attention
Diagnosis of ADHD
Interview, family description, CPT
Treatment of ADHD
stimulant medications, social-skills training, clear behavioral guidelines
Aseperger's syndrome
» Trouble with social skills
» Odd or repetitive behavior
» Communication difficulties
» Talented in a particular area
Learning Disabilities
Discrepancy between expected
learning and actual learning with no
other marked handicap
Least Restrictive Environment
Children with special needs are
offered as much freedom as possible to
benefit from instruction
Resource rooms
classrooms where a special education program can be delivered to a student with a disability
Traditional view of intelligence
– 1. Inborn
– 2. Unitary
– 3. Measurable
Heredity within groups does not =
heredity between groups
IQ does not =
intelligence
Heritability does not =
un-modifiability
Conservation solution: Identity
Its the same water
Conservation solution: Reversibility
If you pour it back, it will be the same
Conservation solution: Reciprocity
1 glass is tall and skinny while 1 is short and fat
During Middle Childhood, basic memory processes improve...
retrieval speed and long term memory
New memory strategies during middle childhood
rehearsal
organization
Erikson's 4th developmental stage
Industry vs. Inferiority
•Children make initial assessments of how they can contribute to the larger society
Biggest predictor of literacy in childhood
Exposure to language
Overjustification effect
Extrinsic reward is so powerful and swallows up the intrinsic motivation
Does self esteem cause: Better performance:
NO
Does self esteem cause: Interpersonal success:
NO
Does self esteem cause: Happiness:
YES
Does self esteem cause: Healthier lifestyles:
SOMETIMES
Why the (relationship/lack of) between self-esteem and positive outcomes?
We derive our self – esteem from prior behavioral history/performance
Self Evaluation shift in middle childhood
•Kindergarteners think they are in the smartest of the class
•Then start to notice who else is better than them, receive real feedback
Criteria Competence shift in middle childhood
As children get older, moves from content based to a normative based;
I know about dinosaurs -> I get 95s and the teacher always asks me for help
Shift of Malleability of competence in middle childhood
•Young: with practice and time, everyone can be great
•Older: more fixed understanding of ability
Middle childhood changes in friendship
Advances in communication skills
Expectations of friendship -> reciprocity
Groups become more strongly gender segregated
Bullying
Social competence increases
Preconventional Morality
Rewards and punishments
1: obedience and punishment
2: individualism and exchange
Conventional Morality
3: Good interpersonal relations
4: Maintaining social order
Post Conventional Morality
5: Social contract and individual rights
6: Universal principles
Criticisms of Kohlberg:
Largely biased towards males, who engage in more abstract discussion, whereas women focus on harmony and good social relations
By age 5, the brain has reached about ______ of its adult weight.
90%
For preschoolers, the cause of accidental death is most likely from:
Drowning
Mothers who are depressed, financially stressed, and whose infants tend to have difficult temperaments may maltreat their babies. Those mothers tend to:
blame the baby for crying
Mary, who is left-handed, exhibits better coordination of both sides of her body than do her right-handed siblings. How might Mary's better coordination be explained from a brain development perspective?
The corpus collosa is thicker in left-handed adults.
The part of the body that develops most quickly is:
The brain
The factor largely responsible for the great differences in height between children in developed and underdeveloped nations is:
Nutrition
After a head injury, 15-year-old Jack started having temper tantrums. Most likely his ______ was injured.
Prefrontal Cortex
Secondary prevention always involves:
responding to the first symptoms of a problem.
Jesse's home life was extremely stressful and violent until he was placed into foster care at age six. Upon entering first grade, it was apparent that some learning and memory deficits existed. That is probably because.
part of his hippocampus was destroyed by stress hormones
Matthew spoke in a grammatically correct way when he first started talking. Now at age 3, he is routinely making overregularization errors. What happened to Matthew?
He is demonstrating an understanding of the rules of grammar
A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency to:
Centrate
A teacher who carefully plans each child's participation in the learning process is:
Scaffolding
Humans seek reasons, causes, and underlying principles to explain the world around them. The research term for this is:
Theory-Theory
The underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is:
Maturation of the prefrontal cortex
Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to:
social activities guided by others
A child's ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called:
fast mapping
Vygotsky believed that language advances thinking through:
Private speech and mediation
When a preschooler judges his or her own skills, he or she tends to:
overestimate his or her own abilities
The difference between relational and reactive aggression is that relational aggression is ______, whereas reactive aggression is ______.
social; physical behavior
According to behaviorist theorists, parents are:
Models for behavior
Video violence...
Makes children more violent
Mrs. Kaminsky is a very nurturing parent and has good communication with her children whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:
Permissive
In a game of dodge ball played by a large group of second-graders, the same children regularly get hit with the ball. This probably is due to:
slow reaction time
The underlying problem in ADHD is most likely:
a neurological difficulty involving neurotransmitters.
Down syndrome, Asperger syndrome, and depression all begin with:
A biological anomaly
Seven-year-old Henry was diagnosed with ADHD and dyslexia. His ADHD:
is comorbid with his dyxlexia
The disorder mentioned in the text that affects only girls is:
Rhett syndrome
A major criticism of the ESL approach in preparing children for the regular English-speaking classroom is that:
children's attempts to communicate with each other are devalued.
Two factors that play important roles in the connection between low SES and language learning are:
early exposure to language and expectation
The Piagetian concept that certain characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in the object's appearance is:
Identity
John has the ability to talk informally with his friends and more formally to his teachers when called on in class. This is because John understands the:
Pragmatics of his language
Piaget has provided us with the ______ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the ______.
individual context; social context
The main reason 11-year-olds are better thinkers than 7-year-olds is because
they have better retrieval strategies and analysis
Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of ______ in his description of the stages of moral development.
Piaget
The bully who has been a victim of bullying himself is called a:
Bully victim
Compared with younger children, older children more often choose friends...
of the same sex and background as themselves
Preconventional morality involves:
an emphasis on reward and punishment
During the school years ______ decreases
self-esteem
The percentage of school-age children that live in households headed by a single father is:
5%
In childhood, how children react to a serious stressor depends primarily on:
how many other stressors are present.
Both bullies and their victims assume that:
Adults will not intervene
Ages of "The Preschool Years" / Early Childhood
2-6
From age 2-6, each year most children add ___ inches and ___ lbs
3
4.5
Height differences ___ groups are greater than the average differences ___ groups
within
between
During preschool years, children need ___ calories per pound than they did as infants
fewer
Young children generally insist that a particular experience occur in an exact sequence and manner, a phenomenon called...
just right
By age 2, the brain weighs ___% of its adult weight
75
By age 5, the brain weighs ___% of its adult weight
90
The specialization of the two sides of the body and brain is called...
lateralization
The ___ side of the brain has areas dedicated to...
logic, analysis and language
The ___ hemisphere controls...
emotion and creative impulses
The Prefrontal cortex is sometimes called the ___ because all other areas of the brain are ruled by its decisions
Executive
2 signs of an undeveloped prefrontal cortex
impulsiveness and preservation
The part of the brain that plays a crucial role in the expression and regulation of emotions
Limbic system
The __ regulates emotions, particularly fear and anxiety
amygdala
The ___ is the central processor of memory
Hippocampus
The ___ produces hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
Hypothalamus
Memory of when, where and how a fact was learned
source memory
Large body movements such as running, climbing, jumping and throwing
Gross motor skills
Skills that involve small body movements, such as pouring liquids and cutting foods
Fine motor skills
Leading cause of childhood death
Accidental injury
Preventative community actions that reduce everyone's change of injury
primary prevention
Preventative actions that avert harm in the immediate situation
Secondary prevention
Actions aimed at minimizing the impact of an adverse event that has already occurred
Tertiary prevention
Intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, someone under age 18
child maltreatment
Actions that are deliberately harmful to a child's well being
abuse
A failure to acct appropriately to meet a child's basic needs
Neglect
In young children, preservation is a sign of
immature brain functions
The area of the brain that directs and controls the other areas
Prefrontal cortex
During childhood, the ___ develops faster than any other part of the body
brain
The center for perceiving various types of visual configurations is usually located in the brain's...
right hemisphere
Seeing her toddler reach for the hot stove top, mom grabs her hand and says, "No, that is very hot." This behavior is an example of...
Secondary prevention
Most gross motor skills can be learned by healthy children by about age...
5
___ are often caused by increased activity in the amygdala, which is normal during childhood
Nightmares
2 year old Carrie is hyperactive, often confused between fantasy and reality, and jumps at any sudden noise. Her pediatrician suspects she is suffering from...
PTSD
Which aspect of brain development during the play years contributes most to enhancing communication among the brain's various specialized areas?
Proliferation of dendrite networks
Piaget referred to cognitive development between that ages of 2 and 6 as...
Preoperational Intelligence
Young children's tendency to contemplate the world exclusively from their personal perspective...
Egocentrism
Young children's tendency to think about one aspect of a situation at a time is called...
centration
Children tend to focus on ___ to the exclusion of other attributes of objects and people
Appearance
The inability to recognize that reversing a process will restore the original conditions from which the process began
irreversibility
The idea that amount is unaffected by changes in appearance is called...
conservation
According to Vygotsky, a child is an ___ whose intellectual growth is stimulated by more skilled members of society
apprentice in training
Vygotsky: A range of skills that a person can exercise with assistance but is not yet able to perform indepenently
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky: 2 crucial ways that language is essential to the advancement of thinking...
pricate speech, social mediation
Term that highlights the idea that children attempt to construct theories to explain everything they see and hear
theory-theory
An understanding of other's thinking
Theory of mind
Many 3 year olds have difficulty realizing that a belief can be...
false
Developing theory of mind...(4)
Neurological maturation
Language ability
Sibling
Culture
Two aspects of development that make ages 2 to 6 the prime time for learning language are...
brain maturation and myelination
A process used to learn words after 1 or 2 hearings
fast mapping
Process by which children are able to apply newly learned words to other objects in the same category
Logical extensions
Children who speak 2 languages by age 5 are often...
less egocentric
more advanced theory of mind
less fluency in either language
slower reading development
Piaget's take on education
Let children discover ideas at their own pace
Vygotsky's approach to education
Children learn from other children under the watchful guidance of adults
Montessori school
child centered
projects to give them a sense of accomplishment
Reggio Emilia schools
Encourage children to master skills not usually seen in American schools till age 7
3 elements of preoperational thinking
Focus on appearance
Static reasoning
Centration
Vygotsky: Children learn because adults...
Present challenges
Offer assistance
Encourage motivation
Children develop theory of mind around age
3-6
Most 5 year olds have difficulty understanding comparisons because
They don't understand that meaning depends on context
The major psychosocial accomplishment of the play years is learning...
When and how to express emotions
Emotional Regulation
Erikson stage for ages 3 - 6
initiative vs. guilt
Guilt is a more mature emotion than shame because guilt is
internalized
Children who have externalizing problems...
lash out
are undercontrolled
Children who have internalizing problems
Tend to be inhibited, fearful and withdrawn
Repeated exposure to extreme stress can kill neurons and make some children
Physiologically unable to regulate their emotions
By age 5, most children can be deliberately prosocial or antisocial because...
Brain maturation
Emotional regulation
Theory of mind
Interactions with caregivers
Aggression used to obtain or retain an object or privilege
Instrumental
Aggression used in angry retaliation
Reactive
Aggression that takes the form of insults or social rejection
Relational
The form of aggression that is most likely to increase from age 2 to 6 is
Instrumental
Appropriate punishments
Clarify what is expected
Remember what the child is able to do
Be rare
Reserved for behaviors that the child understands and can reasonably control
By age __, children can consistently apply gender labels and have a rudimentary understanding of the permanence of their own gender
2
By age __, children are convinced that certain toys and roles are appropriate for one gender but not the other
4
Awareness that sex is a fixed biological characteristic does not become solid until about age...
8
Freud called the period from age 3 to 6 the...
Phallic stage
Boys develop a powerful conscience in self defense...
superego
Erikson noted that preschoolers eagerly begin new activities but are vulnerable to criticism and feelings of failure; they experience the crisis of...
Initiative vs. guilt
Children who have internalizing problems tend to have greater activity in the...
Right prefrontal cortex
Ages of the school years/middle childhood?
7-11
The biggest influence on development from age 7 to 11 is the changing...
context
People who inherit a gene allele called ___ are more likely to be obese
FTO
Causes/triggers of asthma
Genes
Infections
Allergens (pet hair)
Flynn Effect
The average IQ scores of nations have increased
Mentally retarded, IQ below...
70
Sternberg's 3 types of intelligence
Academic
Practical
Creative
The ability to filter out distractions and concentrate on relevant details
Selective Attention
Process by which thoughts and actions become routine and no longer require much thought
Automatization
According to Piaget, between 7 and 11...
Concrete Operational Thought
The concept that objects can be organized into categories according to some common property...
Classification
The logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even when other characteristics change...
identity
The idea that a transformation process can be reversed to restore the original condition...
reversibility
The mechanisms of the info-processing system that regulate the analysis and flow of information
control processes
3 control processes
selective attention
Metacognition
Emotional Regulation
According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development in which a person understands specific logical ideas and can apply them to concrete problems
concrete operational thought
Which aspect of memory is most likely to change during the school years
The speed and efficiency of working memory
2 kinds of socially rejected kids
aggressive-rejected
withdrawn-rejected
The ability to understand human interactions
social cognition
The power school children have to modify their impulses and emotions
Effortful control
Family function refers to how well the family...
Works to meet the needs of its members
Family stress model
Economic hardship in a family increases stress, which often makes adults more harsh and hostile with their children
Freud describes middle childhood as the period of latency, when...
emotional drives are quiet and unconscious sexual conflicts are submerged
Erikson: the crisis of middle childhood is...
industry vs. inferiority
Between 9 and 11, children are likely to demonstrate moral reasoning at which of Kohlberg's stages?
Conventional
3 values of middle childhood
Protect your friends
Don't tell adults what really goes on
Try not to be too different from other children
As they evaluate themselves according to increasingly complex self-theories, school age children typically experience a ___ in self esteem
dip
Most aggressive-rejected children ___ other people's words and behavior
misinterpret
School age bullies are socially perceptive but not...
empathetic
Research regarding factors that contribute to children's problems found the strongest correlation between children's peace of mind and...
feelings of self-blame and vulnerability