Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/67

Click to flip

67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
steps to adoption of a new identity
conformist
internalize the goals of society
steps to the adoption of a new identity
primary deviance
commit some type of deviant act
stept to the adoption of a new identity
secondary deviance
be labeled a deviant
stept to the adoption of a new identity
adoption of a new identity
accept that label
changes that must occur for a new identity
public
exists in the outside world
social status is defined and promoted
status cues exist in the level
changes that must occur for a new identity
private
internal to the person
within this level there must be two cognitive processes that occur for any adoption of a new identity
1. individuals must recognize the current status is innappropriate
2. individuals must locate a new move apt. status
techniques of neutralization
denial of responsibility
– Deviant acts were committed due to acts beyond their control
– *I couldn’t help myself*…the donut was right there on top of the trash! I had to eat it!
techniques of neutralization
denying injury
– Argue that nobody was actually hurt from the deviant act
– *No harm, no foul*; The only person I harm when I use drugs is myself.
techniques of neutralization
denying the victim
– The assertion that since no single victim can be found, so there is no crime
• The only ones hurt by downloading songs are the giant corporations
– Can also assert that the victim was asking for it
• The case of David Park
techniques of neutralization
appeal to higher loyalities
– The deviant behavior was used to help a friend or a deserving party
• *I let her cheat off my test because she is a friend*
techniques of neutralization
condemnation of teh condemners
– Asserting that those that determined your actions to be deviant are corrupt and have no moral authority to do so
• *The collegiate system is systematically unfair to poor students so it doesn’t matter if I cheat on my test*
• A common technique of neutralizations for protest groups
– E.L.F., NOW, NRA
accounts- excuses- 4 methods
appeal to biological drives
i couldn't stop myself
accounts- excuses- 4 methods
appeals to accident
he fell onto the knife 32 times
accounts- excuses- 4 methods
appeals to defeasibility
i thought my roomate turned in myu paper, i'll just run home and get it
accounts- excuses- 4 methods
scapegoating
the cop pulled me over on my way to campus and i missed my test
accounts- justifications- examples
sad tale
Your current behavior is justified because of some aspect of your life previously or concurrently with the deviant behavior
– *I’m only stealing this bread because my child is hungry*
– *I beat my children because I was beat by my father*
accounts- justifications- examples
need for self-fulfillment
The only way the deviant can become a “complete” person is to commit some deviant act
– *I drive better when I'm drunk!*
disclaimers- hedge
an assertion that your future behavior may fail *I'm not sure this is going to work but…*
disclaimers- credentializing
You assert you are the opposite of what you are to do *I'm not racist, some of my best friends are black*
disclaimers- sin licenses
The deviant asserts that the situation justified their deviant behavior *007 and his license to kill*
disclaimers- cognitive disclaimer
A warning to the person that your next action may be considered odd or deviant *This may not make sense to you but…*
disclaimers- appeals fot suspensionj of judgement
The deviant tries to prevent the individual from judging until they know the entire situation *Listen to me before you get mad…*
categories of rapists
deniers
attempt to justify the rape by using techniques to make the woman appear culpable for her own rape - Justifiers
categoties of rapists
admitters
admit the crime happened but attempt to explain the act in such a way that allows them to retain a semblance of moral integrity
techniques rapists use to rid themselves of labels
women as sudectress
• Women were willing or even enthusiastic participants
• “They asked for it and now I’m in trouble?”
techniques rapists use to rid themselves of labels
women mean yes when they say no
• She didn’t resist enough to really not want it
• “It was like she was saying rape me”
techniques rapists use to rid themselves of labels
most women eventually relax and enjoy it
• They assert that most women have the fantasy of being raped
• The rapists assert that biological reactions are proof on enjoyment
• “Once we got into it, she was OK”
techniques rapists use to rid themselves of labels
nice girls don't get raped
• They blame the woman for already existing outside of sexual norms
• They infer sexual practices from activities the woman participates in
– “She was a waitress and you know how they are”
techniques rapists use to rid themselves of labels
only a minor wrong doing
• They admitted to a small transgression but still place the blame of the rape on the woman
• “I did something stupid. I pulled a knife on her and I hit her... I shouldn’t have all this time for going to bed with a broad”
3 excuses for raping
use of alcohol and drugs
• *I never could have done it if I was sober*
• Excusers rarely said that the victim was under the influence of narcotics as that would be an attempt to justify their behavior
3 excuses for raping
emotional problems
• The rapist says that he was under stress and just had an emotional “break”
• Research does not show that rapists were under any more or more sever stress than those that do not rape
• These excusers almost never labeled themselves as “chronically” mentally ill, they believe that there is something minor wrong with them and that it can be fixed with relative ease
• “The fact that I'm a rapist makes me different. Rapists aren't all there. They have problems. It was wrong so there must be a reason why I did it. I must have a problem.”
3 excuses for raping
nice guy image
• They admit to making a serious mistake but that’s all it was; their behavior otherwise is normal
• Serves the dual purpose of
– Expression of guilt
– Signals the listener that the event was not part of who the rapists is and should not be considered
– “Physically they enjoyed the sex [rape]. Once they got involved, it would be difficult to resist. I was always gentle and kind until I started to kill them. And the killing was always sudden, so they wouldn't know it was coming”
6 commonalities for rape
revenge and punishment
• Men raped women as retribution for transgressions from other women
• Most of the time the men who had revenge or punishment as motivations for rape did not “punish” the woman they were mad at
– Collective reliability – each member of a group is held responsible for the actions of all other members
• In these types of rape men were forcing women into sexual standards that the rapists themselves were not expected to hold; when the women failed to keep these standards they motivated the men to gain revenge or punish
• Also used to punish other men; the rape of their wives or girlfriends was an insult to their manhood
6 commonalities for rape
an added bonus
• They had other motivations such as robbery and burglary; rape was just a crime of oppurtunity
• “I wasn’t thinking about sex. But when she said she would do anything not to get hurt, probably because she was pregnant, I thought, ‘why not.”
6 commonalities for rape
sexual access
• Men view sexual access as a given, when it is denied men will take it
• “I think I was really pissed off at her because it didn’t go as planned. I could have been with someone else. She led me on but wouldn’t deliver…I had a male ego that must be fed.”
6 commonalities for rape
impersonal sex and power
– Some rapist craved the power that came along with the rape/seeking total control
– Forcing a woman to climax despite her pain and abhorrence of the assailant makes the rapist feel powerful; the rapists has taken control of the one thing that women have traditionally had the most power over, sex and their bodies
6 commonalities for rape
recreation and adventure
– Often sighted as motivations for gang rap
– The knowledge that the rapists was doing something wrong enhanced the pleasure and provides cohesiveness to a group
– “It was exciting to get away with it (rape), just being able to beat the system, not women. It was like doing something illegal and getting away with it.”
6 motivations for rape
feeling good
– Some men actually took delight in the act of rape and this was motivation enough
– “Rape is like smoking. You can’t stop once you start.”
classic rape situation
A sudden violent attack by a stranger in a deserted public place after which the victim is expected to provide evidence of the attack, usually report to the police
rape induced marriage
• Some women in Taiwan marry their rapists in order to negate the stigma that comes with being a rape victim in Taiwanese culture
– This is a viable option to settle court cases involving rape. If the victim marries the rapists then the assailant does not need to go to jail and the victim is not stigmatized
FBI definition of rape and its problem
 FBI Definition – Carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will
 “Forcibly” – If sex is forced on a female then it is violent; doesn’t matter if the attacker or victim do not view force as being used
 Different from assault in that “genital contact” is made
 Male rape does not exist legally
continuum of rape
 As rape is a socially defined offense there will be different definitions of what actions constitute rape
 Exclusive definition – Those that view very few actions as rape; those that have the most exclusive definition of rape are rapists themselves
 Inclusive definition – Those that view almost all sexual acts as rape; held by militant feminist that view ALL sexual relations between men and women as forced and therefore rape.
 Most Americans fall between these two extremes into a moderately inclusive or exclusive definition
stigma- frame analysis
– “I assume that definitions of a situation are built up in accordance with principals or organization which govern events…and our subjective involvement in them; frame is the word I use to refer to such of these basic elements as I am able to identify.” (Goffman, 1974)
– The use of context clues to define a situation as one encountered previously
– Used to determine what is happening, what will happen next, and how the actor should act
stigma- frames
basic stored order of events that is used to predict
terms of frame analysis
reality
context- ordered events which are compatible with one frame but not another
– Breaking Frame – C:
– Reframing - Reordering events after a frame break
– Bracketing – C:
– Ex. Taking off you clothes in a doctors office is bracketed off from our general frame of nudity to allow the necessary action to happen and to preserve our basic frames about when and where nudity is allowed
– Breaking Frame – C:
– Reframing - Reordering events after a frame break
– Bracketing – C:
– Ex. Taking off you clothes in a doctors office is bracketed off from our general frame of nudity to allow the necessary action to happen and to preserve our basic frames about when and where nudity is allowed
advertisers have completely reversed frame analysis and now place images in their ads that evoke feelings and have little to do with the project
Dramaturlogical model
goal of life is to sell your image of what you want to be to other people
-What it is
– Perspective that the world is your stage
– Individuals perform, as in a play, to all people at all times
– The goal of life is to sell your image of what you want to be to other people
• Essentially the opposite of Cooley’s looking glass self
Types of stages- dramaturlogical model
front stage
area where audience is located- where you project your false identity
• Where the actual performance takes place; actors and audience are present
• Two necessities for a successful sale
– Setting – Context; the individual must be in the proper surroundings in order to be believable
– Personal Front – Exhibiting the “proper” characteristics of the image
» Manners – The mannerisms of the image must match with the mannerisms of the individual
» Appearance – The individual must “look the part”
Types of stages- dramaturlogical model
back stage
where you don’t have to act
• Performers are present but audience is not
• This is where the hidden mannerisms and non-image characteristics will be exhibited
• Possible to have other people backstage; never an audience member
– There can be confederates that are aiding the “sale” of the personal image being sold
– However, Goffman says that when people are back stage aiding in the show, that is a front stage for the image you are selling those helping you in this back stage
dramaturlogical model
borders
• The line between front and back stage must be maintained at all times
• Actors treat borders as signals to start or stop acting; if the audience is present then they must act, if only those allowed back stage are present then the act can stop
dramaturlogical model
stigma
when deviants present a false self they are attempting to hide their stigma. Personal trait that people will think less of the individual who possess it.
-What it is
– Actions or ideas that cause social distress to the actor
Goffman’s Typology with the added Goode type
learn about typology as a whole
– Blemishes of individual character
Goffman’s Typology with the added Goode type
blemishes of individual character
• Deviant behavior – alcoholism, addiction
• Deviant beliefs – “treacherous and rigid beliefs”- racist
• Mental Disorder – autism, schizophrenia
Goffman’s Typology with the added Goode type
abominations of the body
• Violations of esthetic standards – obesity, exceeding ugliness
• Physical incapacitation – deafness, blindness, being unable to walk
Goffman’s Typology with the added Goode type
tribal stigma or face, nation, and religion
• Victim of racist traditions
Goffman’s Typology with the added Goode type
blemishes of individual character

deviant behavior
alcoholism, addiction
Goffman’s Typology with the added Goode type
blemishes of individual character

deviant beleifs
treacherous and rigid beliefs- racist
Goffman’s Typology with the added Goode type
blemishes of individual character

mental disorder
autism, schizophrenia
– Added type of stigma (Goode, 2006)

– Organizational deviance
– Organizational deviance
• Engaging in certain types of role specific behavior taints the individuals character
• The setting determines what type of deviance can be committed
– Police brutality, Sex for grades (Professors), Abuse of the elderly (Nursing home)
– Added type of stigma (Goode, 2006)

– Organizational deviance
To what previous concept is this similar to
• Goffman’s typology of stigma is roughly similar to the ABCs of deviance
– So why don’t Adler and Adler utilize Goffman’s typology in their book?
• Because the ABCs of deviance were created by Adler and Adler
– Could this be an example of organizational deviance?
2 types of stigma
– Discreditable – Those with concealed deviant traits
– Discredited – People who have revealed their deviance or cannot hide it
2 ways of discreditable deviance
Discredited
• Disclosure
– Deviance disavowal- ignoring the deviance until people grow used to it
– Deviance avowal- using techniques such as humor to negate the stigma.
2 ways of discreditable deviance
Discreditable
• 2 ways to hide the deviance
– Passing- be in the setting and use the mannerism of somebody without the stigma
– Double life- maintaining two separate social networks- one deviant and one not.
2 ways of discreditable deviance

disidentifers
props of actions or verbal expressions to distract and fool people into thinking that they do not posses a deviant stigma
2 ways of discreditable deviance
Discredited
• Utilizing manners and appearances of a non-stigmatized group in order to appear as one of them
• The most discreditable attempt the pass with the most vigor
• They attempt to pass by shying away from stigma symbols
– Stigma Symbol – objects or behaviors that would denote your hidden stigmatized identity
• Also use disidentifers to fool others into believing the act
– Disidentifiers – props of actions or verbal expressions to distract and fool people into thinking that they do not posses a deviant stigma
2 ways of discreditable deviance
Discreditable
• Maintaining two distinct lifestyles with differential groups of people
• One that knows about their deviant lifestyle and one that doesn’t
• The deviant may cover in this method
– Covering – Team performance where friends and families aid the deviant in the hiding of their deviant status
-Disidentifiers
– Disidentifiers – props of actions or verbal expressions to distract and fool people into thinking that they do not posses a deviant stigma