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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anomie- essence
feeling of normlessness

Individuals are at heart greedy nasty creatures
why does a community have to have decviance
Deviance serves “function” on two levels
These deviant acts are then censured by the community and the norms of the community have been reinforced to the deviant
The deviant act allows those within the community to have opposition; it allows them to point their finger and say, “What about the children?!”
what happens if there is too little much deviance
If there is too much/too little deviance in a community then what is defined as deviant may change
Previously deviant acts of violence or taboo subjects may be normalized
Previously acceptable acts of deviance may be given deviant status
main tennent of structural functionalism

All actions and institutions in a society serve a function; if an action or institution is no longer functional it will fade from society
main tennent of structural strain

A community prescribes the same goals for all citizens. However, the structure of that community precludes some members of attaining these goals.
why does deviance occur- strucdtural strain
occurs in this model when people who are incapable of attaining their goals must find alternate routes to success
Examples: Drug dealers in poor neighborhoods, Athletes who use performance enhancing drugs
structural strain- cultural prototypes of success
Communities will have an idealized version of an individual who attained the prescribed goals in the prescribed way
Mertons modes of adaption
Modes of Adaptation Cultural Goals Institutionalized Means
Conformity + +
Innovation + -
Ritualism - +
Retreatism - -
Rebellion +/- +/-
adaption- conformity
Those that accept the goals of the community and the socially acceptable routes to get there
Most common type of adaptation; this is the definition of a community
adaption- innovation
The goals of the community are internalized but the means used to get there are innovative
The structure of society precludes them from using traditional means so they must devise new and deviant ways of getting there; often a result of the class system
adaption- ritualism
Acceptance of the means to attain a goal but rejection of the goal itself
Is usually coupled with goals that are lower than prescribed by a community
Most common in communities that stress non-failure
Can ONLY happen to a group of people that have access to the prescribed means of a community
adaption- retreatism
Rejection of goals and means
Least common in any community
Retreatists remove themselves from society and are usually loners
adaption- rebellion
People who reject the goals and the means of a community and wish to replace them with their own
Fairly common but rarely successful
conflict- main tennent

Tension between those in power in a community and those who are being ruled over creates and reifies deviance
2 groups involved in interaction
Crime and deviant behavior are the necessary outcome of this bifurcated(?) society
Marx talks of the Proletariat and the Bourgeoisie
Bourgeoisie – Those in a community that are the owners of production
Proletariat – Those in a community that are not “owners”
quinneys steps- 1
I. Crime as a legal definition of human conduct is created by the agents of the dominant class in a socially stratified community
stepts 2
II. Definitions of crime are composed of behaviors that conflict with the interest of the dominant class
steps 3
III. Definitions of crime are applied by the class that has the power to shape the enforcement and administration of criminal law (Application Stage)
steps 4
IV. Behavior patterns are structures in relation to the definitions of crime, and within this context people engage in actions that have relative probabilities of being defined as criminal
steps 5
V. An ideology of crime is constructed and diffused by the dominant class to secure its hegemony
steps 6
VI. The social reality of crime is constructed by the formulation and the application of definitions of crime, the development of behavior patterns in relation to these definitions, and the construction of an ideology of crime
structural perspective
What the individual does and how they do it is determined by the shape of a community and the institutions in which they exist

what is considered deviant in structural perspective theories will always stem from the community itself determining it so
interactionist perspective
A community is not real except for the interaction between individuals and the communication of ideas

what is considered deviant in an Interactionist perspective will always be defined by the communications of individuals and the agreement upon a definition of deviance by the majority of individuals
differences between structural prespective and interactionist perspective
Structuralism places human action wholly outside of the individual while Interactionists stress interpersonal relations
Allows for a micro examination of human behavior and deviance
theories in the structural perspective are
Structural Functionalism
Structural Strain
Structural Conflict
structural functionalism
All actions in a society serve a function; if an action does not serve a function it will be eliminated from society
Our Community determines our goals and the means to achieve those goals and they are the same for everybody, not possible to resist
social fact
A social fact is a a social construct that tells people how to act in certain situations. Similar to our definition of norms;
Humans rely upon the structure of their community to tell them how to act and the mechanism that allows this transmission of expectations from the structure to the individual is a social fact
External to the individual
deviance serves 2 purposes in a society
Allows for the community to reinforce its boundaries by censuring a deviant – alleviates anomie; works for the deviant and those witness to the spectacle
Provides a “them” to cement “us”
interactionist perspective
A community is not real except for the interaction between individuals and the communication of ideas
Symbolic Interaction – Most theories in this section will utilize this type of interaction
theories in interactionist persp
Labeling Theory
Control Theory
Differential Association Theory
labeling theory
Things are only deviant when they are labeled as such
If we are do deviant things then why aren't we all “deviants”
You don’t need to commit a deviant act to be labeled as a deviant
You cannot know if an action will be deviant until it has been labeled by others
control theory
People have a stake in a community and will not commit a deviant act to maintain that stake
Answers the question of why don’t all people commit deviance if its so damn fun
differential association theory
Deviance is a series of learned behaviors
Answers the question of how do people learn similar techniques of deviance
differential assoc
Community consists of two different parts
Groups organized for criminal behavior
Groups organized against criminal behavior
How these groups interact and the size of each will determine how much crime and deviance there is in a society
Social Equality for men and women; rid the world of patriarchy
No matter what type of feminism there are 5 basic ideas that feminist hold and work towards
Working to increase equality
Work to expand human choice
End sexual violence
Promote sexual freedom
Eliminating gender stratification
feminist labeled deviant because
Labeled as a “deviant perspective” because feminists seek to change the norms of a community as a whole
interactionist perspective
Unlike Structural Functionalism and Structural Strain the theories within the Interactionist perspectives don’t build upon each other; they stand on their own
structural perspective
This is still structural in that the way a community is arranged decides what is deviant and what is not; It is not functional in that deviance does not serve to further society, it only creates conflict