Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/60

Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Present Tense lernen
ich lerne
du lernst
er, sie, es lernt

wir lernen
ihr lernt
sie lernen

Sie lernen
What do present tense stems that end in "d" or "t" do (in the paradigm)?
add an "e" for easier pronunciation
What do present tense stems that end in s, ß, tz or z do when an "st" ending is added (in the paradigm)
drops the "s" of the "st" ending
In the second and third singular, some verbs change their:
stem vowel

a to ä
e to i
e to ei
vowel stem changes from "a" to "ä"
fahren (fährst, fährt), schlafen (schläfst. schläft), waschen (wäschst, wäscht), laufen (läufst, läuft)
vowel stem changes from e to i
sprechen (sprichst, spricht)
essen (ißt, ißt)
helfe (hilfst, hilft)
treffen (triffst, trifft)
vergessen (vergißt, vergißt),
geben (gibst, gibt)
vowel stem changes from e to ie
sehen (siehst, sieht)
lesen (liest, liest)
irregular verb haben
habe - haben
hast - habt
hat - haben
Sie haben
irregular verb sein
bin - sind
bist - seid
ist - sind
Sie sind
irregular verb werden
werde - werden
wirst - werdet
wird - weden
Sie werden
German forms questions by (two methods)
1. placing the verb before the subject: Haben Sie ein Auto?

2. using interrogatives followed by the verb:
Wie alt ist das Kind?
Definite Article
Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive
masc. der, den, dem, des
fem. die, die, der, der
neut. das, das, dem, des
Indefinite Article
Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genitive
masc. ein, einen, einem, eines
fem. eine, eine, einer, einer
neut. ein, ein, einem, eines
Nominative Pronoun
ich
du
er, sie, es

wir
ihr
sie

Sie
Accusative Pronoun
mich
dich
ihn, sie, es

uns
euch
sie

Sie
The predicate nominative follows these verbs
sien (to be)
heißen (to be called)
werden (to get, become)
Uses of the Nominative
1. As the subject of the sentence
2. in a noun of adresss
3. as a predicate noun
4. as an appositive to the subject of a sentence
Uses of the Accusative
1. direct object
2. indicate time or duration of time
3. after prepositions: durch (through); für (for); gegen (against); ohne (without); um (around)
Some prepositions commonly form contractions with the neuter article (durch, für, um)
durch + das = durch
für + das = fürs
um + das = ums
coordinating conjunctions
aber (but - implies however)
denn (for, becuase)
oder (or)
und (and)
sondern (but - implies on the contrary)
Dative Pronoun
mir
dir
ihm, ihr, ihm

uns
euch
ihnen

Sie Ihnen
How does German indicate the dative and accusative case?
by distinct forms of the definite article, indefinite article, personal pronouns
(Word Order) When two noun objects follow a verb...
the dative (indirect object) precedes the accusative (direct object)
When a pronoun object and a noun object follow a verb...
the pronoun object precedes the noun object. This rule also holds true if the accusative (direct object) is a pronoun and the dative (indirect object) is a noun.
(Word Order) When two pronoun objects follow the verb...
the accusative pronoun precedes the dative.
How is the genitive indicated?
1. by distinct forms of the def & indef article
2. by adding s or es to masc. and neuter nouns.
In the genitive, es is added to the noun when
it is a noun of only one syllable
in the genitive, s is added to the noun when
the noun has more then one syllable
(Word Order) Object order after a verb flow chart
(General) When two noun objects follow a verb the dative object precedes the accusative object
(Exception 1) When one of the noun objects is a pronoun, the pronoun object always precedes the other noun object.
(Exception 2) when two pronoun objects follow a verb, the dative precedes the accusative.
Six der words
dies- this that
jed- each every
jen- that
manch- many a
solch- such
welch- which
nine ein words
mein- my
dein- your
sein- his,its
ihr- her, its
unser- our
eurer- your
ihr- their
Ihr- your
kein- no, not a
Differences between nein, kein, nicht
Nein is the negative answer to a question.

Kein is the neg. form of the indefinite article, always negates nouns and means no or not a.

Nicht means not, and its position within a sentence means different things.
nicht at the end of a clause
negates the whole clause
nicht precedes
1. adj. (Das Kleid ist nicht billig)
2. adv. (Sie spricht nicht schnell)
3. pred. nom. (Er ist nicht der Lehrer dieser Klasse)
4. prep. phrases (Sie arbeitet nicht in diesem Büro)
5. any word that receives special negative emphasis
The nine German prepositions that take the dative and accusative
an, auf, hinter, in, neben, über, unter, vor, zwischen
When a verb expresses location or position then the object of a preposition governed by the either a genitive or accusative takes the...
dative
When a verb expresses direction or motion then the object of a preposition governed by the either a genitive or accusative takes the...
accusative
If you can replace English "in" with "into", then the proper object to use in use in German is
an accusative object... because it expresses direction or motion.
Preposition meaning into a building
in
(with the accusative)
Preposition meaning up to a building
zu
(with the accusative)
Preposition meaning to a person
zu
(with the accusative)
Preposition meaning to a (proper name) city or country
nach
(with the accusative)
Preposition meaning up to an object, or to a line of demarcation
an
(with the accusative)
Three prepositions which always require an accusative object when they are used figuratively
an, auf, über

Er denkt an seinen Freund (He is thinking of his friend)
Er wartet auf seinen Freund (He is waiting for his friend)
Er schretbt über seinen Freund (He is wrriting about his friend)
When expressing time, the genitive...
expresses indefinite time...

eines Tages (one day)
eines Morgens (one morning)
eines Abends (one evening)
When expressing time, the accusative...
expresses definite time...

Wir kommen am Sontag (We'll come on Sunday)
Wir kommen am Morgen (We'll come in the morning)
What kind of object should be used to express time with prepositions that are governed by either the dative or the accusative?
dative object
In general, and expression of time precedes and expression of...
place

Sie fährt heute die Stadt (Today she will go into the city)
How does German distinguish the three genders in the plural?
It does not!
Plural definite articles
Nom - die
Acc - die
Dat - den
Gen - der
Plural Der Words
Nom. - diese
Acc - diese
Dat - diesen
Gen - dieser
Plural Ein Words
Nom - deine
Acc - deine
Dat - deinen
Gen - deiner
Generally (warning!!) plural endings on articles (and Der/Ein words) may be summarized as
Nom - e
Acc - e
Dat - en
Gen - er
Forming the Plural on monosyllabics
(generally - warning)
1. adding e to the singular form
2. add an umlaut to the stem vowel
(most masc/ fem fer-sure/neut never)
To form the plural of masculine polysyllabics ending in -er, -en, -el
add nothing to the end... though some add umlaut.

examples
der Bruder - die Brüder
der Vater - die Väter
der Dampfer - die Dampfer
der Ober - die Ober
to form the plural of masculine polysyllabics ending in -e denoting male beings...
add -n
example
der Deutsche - die Deutschen (German boys)
to form the plural of masculine polysyllabics with the stress on the last vowel...
add -en

the same also with masc. endings in -or and not stressed on last syllable (Doktor, Motor)
to form the plural of masculine polysyllabics that do not
1. end in -er, -en, -el
2. end in -e denoting male being
3. stress on last vowel
add -e
The dative is the object of several verbs
helfen (to help)
folgen (to follow)
antworten (to answer)
glauben (to believe)
gehören (to belong to)
The dative endings for all plural nouns will NEARLY always be...
-n
example: Die Männer helfen den Männern