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147 Cards in this Set

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measurement
process of determining size, amount, or extent of somethin
customary system
length-inches
weight-pound
volume-quart
temperature-fahrenheit
ounces
8 _____________= 1 cup
2 cups=1 pint (16 ___________)
2 pints= 1 quart (32 _________)
4 quarts= 1 gallon (128 _______)
fahrenheit
freezing point of water: 32 degrees
boiling point of water: 212
180 degrees between boiling and freezing and boiling points
metric prefixes
"There is a logical progression from smaller units to larger ones, since all sizes of unite are based on ten."
base units
length= meter
weight= gram
volume= liter or meter
temperature= degrees celcius
x1000
kilo
x100
hecta
x10
decka
x.1
deci
x.01
centi
x.001
milli
mnemoic device to remember prefixes
King Henry Drank My Diet Coke Monday
celcius
freezing point of water: 0 degrees
boiling point of water: 100 degrees
100 degrees b/w boiling and freezing points
rules and scales
measure length, width, and thickness
rules and scales
mechanical rule and scale
rules and scales
drafter, archeitect, and machinist's rule/scale
rules and scales
metric rule
calipers
measure diameters and length on either inside or outside of object
micrometer
very precise tools for measuring length, thickness, or diameter of small objects
squares
measure or lay out perpendicular lines

t-square, framing square, try square, center square, combination square
protractors
measure length and angle measures along straing edge
weight scales
measure weight or mass; sensitive scientific scales; analog or digital; maual or electronic
calibrated containers
measure volume; measure ingredients for recipes; measuring spoons, measuring cups; beakers; Earlimyer flasks, etc
close
many production settings don't require close measurements; length of house, width of playing field don't need to be correct
fraction; inch
if product is within a _______ of an _____, it'll work fine

this is when customary is used most
very important
material being measure is _____ ________. (ex. wood changes in size with changes in moisture content and humidity)
1/32 inch; one mm
measuring closer than _____ _______ or ___ _______ aren't useful measurements. wood can change more than that in 1 day
customary
common in cabinent and furniture and printing companies
printing industry's own system
based on pica (1/6 inch) and pom (1/72 inch)
precision
used for smaller, more precise things; eatch parts and engine pistons would be useless if varied by more than 1/32 inch
direct reading meausrement tools
three common uses- linear dimensions, diameters, and angles

can be measured using standard precision devises
linear measurement
ruler

most common divisions are 1/10 inch

metric rule divided into mm

flexible rules are often called tape rules
diameters
precise ______ can be measured by placing a part between anvil and spindle of micrometer and reading measurement on barrel
angles
legs of table are perpendicular

squares used to mark ________

head placed against surface of material; blade allowed to rest on adjacent surface; to be square, no gaps anywhere
indirect reading measuring tools; quality control
many modern measuring systems, humans no longer take measuremts; sensors gather measurement data, processed by computers or other automatic devices

measurement can be used to compare the present condition with a desired contition; process of setting stards measuring features, comparing them to standars, and corrective actions is called
tools
describes distance, mass, time, temperature, number of particles, electrical current, and light intensity
drafting
process of accurately representing 3-d objects and structures on 2-d surface. this accurate drawing proceeess is used for nearly every productor sturcture made today
rough sketches
are the most common recording method. the term "rough" describes the state of the design ideas. It suggests that the designes are incomlete and unrefined
skteching
way of drawing out ideas
refined sketches
refined design ideas. They may not look anything like the irginal rough sketeches. communicate shape and proportion. can come from 2 or more sketchs. Don not communicate size
detailed sketches
communicate size, in addition to the shape and proportion communicated in the first two drawings. It also communicates the information needed to build a model of the product or structure
different techniques
____________ ______________ are used to show the artifact as the human eye would see it. Therefore, a single view is used to show how the front, sides, and top would appear
oblique sketchs
easiest pictorial sketches to produce; show front view as if you were looking straght at it; sides extend back from the front view
oblique sketchs
sides shown with parallel lines that are generally drawn at 45 degrees to show the front view
cavalier oblique drawings
cause the sides and top to look deeper than they are. actual
cabinent oblique drawings
shorten the lines that project back from the front ot one-half their original length
isometric
equal measure
angles
formed by the lines at the upper right corner are equat to 120 degrees
object
is shown as if viewed from one corner (isometric)
perspective sketchs
most realistic, yet, most difficult of the three sketchs
perspective sketches
show how the human eye and camera would see it
perspective sketches
realism is obtained by having parallel lines meet at a distance vantage point
types of perspective views
one point, two point, and three point
one point persepective
shows an object as if you were directly in front of it. horizon line
two point perspective
shows how an object would appear if you stood at one corner
three point perspective
shows how the eye sees the length, width, and height of an object
multi view method
places one or more views of the object in one drawing
multi view method
in this method, generally a top right and end view are shown
multi view drawings
use orthographic projection to project information at the right anglesw to new views
detail drawings
front view is drawn in the lower left quadrant of the paper
projection lines
extended to the top and right of a front view to form the top and side views
different lines
used to show the outlines and major details on an object
object lines
darkest lines which show the outlines and major details
hidden lines
dotted lines used to show outlines which are not visible in a certain view
extension lines
used in dimensioning, indicate the points from which the measurements are taken
center lines
locate holes in a part. these lines pass through the center of the hole
dimension lines
have arrows apointing to the extension lines that indicate the range of the dimension. between the extension lines
orthographic projection
top and side views are projected up to the right of the front view
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
refers to process using computer and software to assist drafter in preparing mechanical or architectual drawings
Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD)
closely related to CAD. extra functions that simulate testing products, increase quality of work
Advatages of CAD
speed
quality
ease of modification
cost
speed
more drawings in time
lines are tidious
CAD- set endpoints and CAD does rest
quality
improved line quality, neatness, legibility, and accuracy
hard to achieve consistinent line quality
no smudging or smearing
computer is standard
ease of modification
common to need to revise
more modifications time consuming
drawings are saved in memory
cost
expensive at fitst, but you can save$$ in long run (tools, paper, pencils, etc.)
3D
programs store 3d database for each point of object
greatly
#d __________ affects ability to view and display veiws of object
2d
packages store data for x and y coordinates
2.5d
also store data points for x and y, also provide simplified 3D visualization for objects
3d
programs store data for x, y, and z, coordinates
commands
short words which, when entered, causes computer to perform some function
entity
objector text item created
grids
easily locate position on drawing
grid dots
dots on grid
grid spacing
most programs allow drafter to adjust spacing of dots
snap grids (grid snaps)
used to lock drawing curser to grid points as it is moved across screen. when ____ ______ is on, cursor moves from grid point to grid pont
rotation
used to rotate entity around base point
handle point
grabbing on corner of entity and dragging pont around base point
zoom
allows drafter to move in on a particular part, can view more details
windows
seperate display screen
split screen
allows you 2 work on two windows
zoom screen
different things at same time. zoom in on something
cartesian coordinate system
graphical point location; standard in CAd; precise positioning of entities on drawing surface
coordinate pair
position of point (x,y)
absolute coordinates
give position measured from origin of drawing. refr to precise locations
relative coordinates
refer to point measured from previous point
design
"___________ is regarded by many as the core problem solving process of technolical development"
integration of technology
"it is as fundamental to technology as inquiryis to science and reading is to language arts"
balance
determining visual weight of an object or image in either formal symmetry or informal symmetry
principles of design
include: balance, proportion, contrast, variety, harmony, unity, rhythm
proportion
distinguishing size relantionship of various parts of projector graphich as they relate to the finished product
contrast
establishing a point of emphasis to draw viewer's eye in an specific elements of graphic or product
variety
used to add elements of interest ot grpahich or product to gain interest in graphic or product
harmony
utilized to add rhythem and allow viewer to see items in agreeable manner
unity
refers to ability to make componets of a design have agreement with no elements out of place or seem as they don't belong together
rhythm
reoccurence or repetition within design that gives it the appearance that movement is taking place
design
process of :
interactive decision making
planning in production of products and systems
converting materials and resources
meeting human needs and wantes to solve problems
design propsals
" a written plan of action for solutions to a proposed problem
designers
driven to develop products that are creative through inventions and innovations that show resourcefulness
human ability
is distinguised as the ability to visualize and think abstractly along with considering several solutions for same problem
elements of design
line, shape, form, space, color, texture/shades
development of products
communications
transportation
manufactoring
biotechnology
construction
energy and power
design factors
safety
reliability
economic considerations
quality control
enviromental concerns
manufactorability
maintence/ repair
ergonomics
potentinal hazards
weigh benefits of design against _______________ ___________
enviromentally conscious
remember society is more _______________ ______ than ever before
ultimate design goal
Earth's our home, we must protect and preserve her for future generations
design process
effects these systems: communications, construction, energy and power, and biotechnology
safety
comply with codes and regulations go as to provide safe operation of products by the developer and consumer
reliability and functionality
process of product working properly, utilizing proper meterials within developement constraints
economic considerations
developement of jobs and products for the marketplace for individuals to purchase and pay tax on
quality control
requires information
feedback
related to measurement tolerances and specifications to assure proper production of products
enviromental concerns
developing produced in harmony with our enrivorment and recyclable
manufacturability
ability of product to be produced through feasible means and meet a need using available materials and resources
maitnenance/ repair
products produced with the intention of long life and low maintenance along with simple field replacement units
ergonomics
study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, amachines, or work space so that people and things interact safely and must efficiently
communications
wireless systems utilize Internet and advances in satelites present future not yet imagined
manufactoring
CAD/CAM control tech and use of robots of enhancements everyday
transportation
magnetic levitation systems and automatic guided vehicles move products and people daily
structual
cities and communities on Earh along with new developem ent of International Space Station
Energy and Power
solar, wind, hydroelectric energies are present examples of only few sources thar are enviromentally conscious
biotechnology
genetic engineering related to agriculture, enviromental concerns and medical advances
2 non computer generated items
design and production of graphic arts typcially begins with ________________
thumbnail sketches
generally show choices for possible page layouts
rough or mechanaical sketchs
shows dimensions, size and locations of all elements, text, and images on page
more often then in past
_______ ________ ___designers aren't physically pasting elements onto camera ready copy of design. Instead, most of this so called paste up is done soley on computer.
computers
_____________ also used in generating film and printing plates without use of process cameras
typical software
_________ __________ that is involved in graphic design or pre-dress process includes PageMaker, and QuarkExpress
PhotoShop
color sperations and other digital photgraphic processes are acomplished wit hsoftware like ___________
rule of thirds
for composition of landscape and other non-portarait phographs, generally ________________ is followed
2/3 1/3
means that photograph is composed of _____ sky and ______ ground or vise versa depending on what is most interesting
rule of thirds
states that you should put subject of 4 intersection points, slightely off center
headspace
often leave too much ______ and shoot from too far away when composing interest shots.
lead space
______ ________ should also be included if subject is facing certain direction or is moving in particular direction
portraits
_______ should be shot up close w/o too much headspace
story board
helps people visualize each shot with regard to lighting requirements, sound, dialog, etc. Planning shoots depends on requirements that are specifided in storyboard