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95 Cards in this Set

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Dermatology

Definition:
healthcare specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat integumentary diseases
Word parts:

derm/o-
integu/o-
-ment
derm = skin

integu = to cover

-ment = action
Skin

Consists of two layers:
The epidermis – thin outermost layer
The dermis – thick layer below the epidermis contains the arteries, veins, nerves, hair follicles
largest organ in human body?
the skin, if laid flat it would cover about 2 billiard tables.
Do identical twins have identical finger prints???
no
Skin is the first line of defense against disease.

how accomplished?
Epidermis is dry and acidic discouraging growth of microorganisms. Sweat contains antibodies & enzymes that kill bacteria. Normal skin bacteria do not cause disease but inhibit growth of disease causing microorganisms by competing for space & nutrients
Dermatomes

main idea:
Each spinal nerve is responsible for sending sensory information from a specific region of the skin
Subcutaneous Tissue

what is it?
A loose, connective tissue directly beneath the dermis of the skin
Subcutaneous Tissue

how composed?
Composed of adipose tissue or fat that is made up of lipocytes (fat-storing cells)
Subcutaneous Tissue

as insulation?
Acts as a layer of insulation to conserve internal body heat
Subcutaneous Tissue

can it vary in thickness?
Can be thin or as thick as several inches in areas like the abdomen
Sebaceous Glands

main idea?
Are exocrine glands in the dermis that secrete sebum through a duct into a hair follicle
Also known as oil glands
word parts

Exo-

Crine-
Exo = away from

Crine = a thing that excretes
Anaphylaxis

main idea?
a severe systemic allergic reaction that can be life threatening; it is also known as anaphylactic shock.
word parts

Ana-:
Phylact/o:
-ic:
ana = excessive

phylact/o = guarding or protecting

-ic = pertaining to
Cyst

description, color, contents, example
D- elevated circular mound
C- skin color of erytema
Cont- semisolid or partly fluid filled
E- Acne, sebaceous cyst
Fissure

description, color, contents, example
D- small crack like crevice
C- Erythema
Cont- none, some fluid exudate
E- dry chapped skin
Macule


description, color, contents, example
D- Flat circle
C- pigmented, brown or black
Cont- none
E- freckle, age spot
Papule

description, color, contents, example
D- elevated
C- skin color or erythema
Cont- solid
E- acne pimple
Pustule

description, color, contents, example
D- elevated
C- white top
Cont- pus
E- acne whitehead
Scale

description, color, contents, example
D- flat to slightly elevated thin flake
C- white
Cont- none
E- dandruff, psoriasis
Vesicle

description, color, contents, example
D- elevated with a pointed top
C- erythema, transparent top
Cont- clear fluid
E- herpes, chicken pox, shingles
Wheal

description, color, contents, example
D- elevated with broad, flat top
C- erythema
Cont- clear fluid
E- insect bites, urticaria
Changes in skin color

Albinism
white / disease process
Changes in skin color

Cyanosis
blue / abnormal condition
Changes in skin color

Erythema
condition of / redness
Changes in skin color

Jaundice
yellow / condition
Changes in skin color

Melanocyte
black / cell
Changes in skin color

Pallor
paleness
Changes in skin color

Necrosis
death of tissue / condition
First degree burn

how deep does it extend?
epidermis
Second degree burn

how deep does it extend?
epidermis and partial dermis
Third degree burn

how deep does it extend?
may include muscle
Callus

how formed?
from repitive rubbing
Skin diseases


Hemorrhage
excessive discharge of blood
Skin diseases

Ecchymosis
blood in the tissue, abn condition
Skin diseases


Xeroderma
dry skin
Skin diseases

Diaphoresis
sweating condition
Skin diseases


Anhidrosis
without sweating
Hemangioma

definition?
the bright red color comes from large number of dilated blood vessels. Most disappear before age 3
Syndactyly

what is it?
together, condition of fingers or toes
Psoriasis

what is it?
state of itching, autoimmune disease
Onychomycosis

what is it?
nail/ fungus/ condition
Biopsy (Bx)

main idea?
procedure to remove all or part of a skin lesion for the purposes of diagnosis
Autograft

main idea
self/ skin graft taken from another part of the patient's body
Allograft

main idea
other/ skin graft taken from a cadaver to temporarily protect the patient against infection and fluid loss
Xenograft

main idea
foreign/ skin graft (just dermis) taken from an animal (pig) to temporarily protect the patient against infection and fluid loss
Synthetic skin graft

main idea
uses a skin graft made from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
Diseases of the Bones and Cartilage

5 specific
Avascular necrosis
Bone tumor
Chondroma – cartilage / tumor
Chondromalacia patellae
Fracture
Closed fracture

main idea?
any type of fracture in which the bone does not break through the overlying skin
open fracture

description:
any type of fracture in which the bone breaks the overlying skin. also known as a Compound Fracture
Nondisplaced Fracture

description:
broken bone ends remain in their normal anatomical alignment
Displaced Fracture

description:
broken bone ends are pulled out of their normal anatomical alignment
Colles' Fracture

description:
distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand
Comminuted Fracture

description:
bone is crushed into several pieces

comminut/o- break into minute pieced
Compression Fracture

description:
vertebrae are compressed together after falling onto the buttocks or a vertebra collapses in on itself because of disease
Depressed Fracture

description:
cranium is fractured inwards towards the brain
Greenstick Fracture

description:
bone is broken on only one side. occurs most often in children as part of the bone is still composed of flexible cartilage
Diseases of the Bones and Cartilage

Osteomalacia
abnormal softening bones due to a deficiency of Vitamin D
Diseases of the Bones and Cartilage

Osteomyelitis
Infection in the bone and bone marrow
Diseases of the Bones and Cartilage

Osteoporosis
porous bone, deminieralization
Diseases of the Vertebrae

Ankylosing spondylitis
chronic inflammation that leads to restriction of movement
fused or stiff / a condition of doing
vertebra / inflammation
Diseases of the Vertebrae

Kyphosis
bent, humpbacked
Diseases of the Vertebrae

Lordosis
swayback
Diseases of the Vertebrae

Scoliosis
curved, crooked
Diseases of the Vertebrae

Spondylolisthesis
slipping
Diseases of the Joints and Ligaments


Arthropathy
disease of joint
Diseases of the Joints and Ligaments

Gout
metabolic disorder with excessive levels of uric acid in the blood
Diseases of the Joints and Ligaments

3 others...
Arthralgia

Dislocation

Hemarthrosis
Rheumatoid arthritis

main idea
watery discharge, resembling. Autoimmune disease
Diseases of the Bones of the Legs and Feet

Genu varum
bow legged
Diseases of the Bones of the Legs and Feet

Genu valgum
knocked kneed
Diseases of the Bones of the Legs and Feet

Hallux valgus
bunion, big toe angles towards little toe
Diseases of the Bones of the Legs and Feet

Talipes equinovarus
clubfoot, foot turns inward and down
External Fixator

main idea
a surgical treatment used to set bone fractures in which a cast would not allow proper alignment of the fracture
Prosthesis

main idea
artificial limb
Surgical Procedures

Amputation
procedure to remove all or part of an extremity because of trauma or circulatory disease
Surgical Procedures

Arthrocentesis
procedure to remove an accumulation of fluid in a joint by using a needle inserted into the joint space
Surgical Procedures

Arthrodesis
procedure to fuse the bones in a degenerated, unstable joint
Surgical Procedures

Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF)
procedure to treat a complicated fracture using screws, nails, or plates to hold fracture fragments in alignment
Acronyms

AKA
AP
ASIS
Above the knee amputation

Antereoposterior

Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
Acronyms

BKA
BMD
C1-C7
Below the knee amputation

Bone mineral density

cervical vertebrae
Acronyms

Ca
CDH
DEXA/ DXA
Calcium

Congenital dislocation of the hip

Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
Acronyms

DIP
DJD
ESWT
Distal inerphalangeal (joint)

Degenerative joint disease

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy
Acronyms

fib
Fx
L1-L5
fibula (slang)

fracture

lumbar vertebrae
Acronyms

LLE
LUE
MCP
Left lower extremity

Left upper extremity

metacarpophalangeal (joint)
Acronyms

NSAID
OA
ortho
Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug

osteoarthritis

orthopedics (slang)
Acronyms

P
PIP
PT
Phosphorus

Proximal interphalangeal (joint)

physical therapy/ therapist
Acronyms

QCT
RA
RLE
Quantitative computerized tomography

Rheumatoid arthritis

Right lower extremity
Acronyms

ROM
RUE
S1
Range of motion

Right upper extremity

first sacral vertebrae
Acronyms

T1-T12
THR
tib
thoracic vertebrae

total hip replacement

tibia (slang)
Assessment Writing in SOAP notes

main ideas:
Interprets the data in S: and O:
Clarifies the significance of data in S: and O: Supports the continuation of PT. Describes patient’s response to treatment as it relates to progress towards goals
All comments must be supported in S: and O
Common Mistakes in A: of SOAP note

saying things like...
Patient tolerated well...
Patient was cooperative and motivated (better to present this through specific examples)
ALL SENTENCES MUST BE SUPPORTED BY S; and O:
In the Initial Evaluation

Key points...
Short and Long term goals.
Expected functional outcome.
Goals should include a specific action or performance, measurable data an time periods.
Plan

key points to consider...
What will be done next session to progress towards a goal or address a subjective complaint. When the next session is scheduled. What consult may be planned. PT, MD, social worker, etc.. Any equipment that needs to be ordered for next visit. Number of visits until discharge.