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79 Cards in this Set

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________: a circumscribed change in skin color without elevation or depression.
________: a solid elevated lesion usually 0.5 cm or less in diameter.
________: a raised lesion that has a greater area as compared to its elevation above the skin surface.
________: a rounded or flat-topped elevated lesion formed by local dermal edema.
________: a palpable solid lesion of varying size, greater than 0.5 cm and less than 2 cm in diameter, which may be present in the epidermis, dermis or subcutis.



Wheal (hive)

________: a circumscribed elevated lesion which contains free fluid. Vesicles are 0.5 cm or less in diameter
_______: a circumscribed elevated lesion which contains pus. An abscess is usually in the dermis or subcutis.
________: a non-blanching erythema or violaceous color due to extravasation of blood into the tissue.
_______: a sac containing liquid or semisolid material usually in the dermis



-People with albinism have little or no pigment in their _________(3).
-They have inherited genes that do not make the usual amounts of melanin
Autosomal _________
People with albinism always have problems with _______, and many have low vision and are legally blind
Vision problems in albinism result from abnormal development of the retina and abnormal patterns of nerve connections between the eye and the brain. It is the presence of these eye problems that defines the diagnosis of albinism.
eyes, skin, or hair


Therefore the main test for albinism is simply an ____ exam
________ albinism involves the eyes, hair, and skin.
_________albinism involves primarily the eyes, while skin and hair may appear similar or slightly lighter than that of other family members
Type 1 albinism (also called tyrosinase-related albinism) is the type involving almost no pigmentation. Type 1 albinism results from a genetic defect in an enzyme called ________. This enzyme helps the body to change the amino acid tyrosine into pigment.
Type 2, a type with slight pigmentation, results from a defect in a different gene called the ____ gene --unable to produce melanin for any one of a variety of reasons that do not directly involve the tyrosinase enzyme




3 > Cafe au lait spots are asso w/ __________ and rarely ___________

_________ is a type of birthmark that can be confused as a bruise from abuse

McCune-Albright syndrom

Mongolian spots
ABCDE’s of moles/melanoma

________- If you draw a line through this mole, the two halves should match. If it is asymmetrical, this is a warning sign for melanoma
______ – benign nevi should have smooth rounded borders. The borders of an early melanoma tend to be uneven. The edges may be scalloped or notched.
______ - Having a variety of colors is another warning signal. A benign nevi should be homogenous in color. A number of different shades of brown, tan or black could appear. A melanoma may also become red, white or blue.
_______- greater than ½ cm. Melanomas usually are larger in diameter than the size of the eraser on your pencil (1/4 inch or 6 mm), but they may sometimes be smaller when first detected.
_______- Any change — in size, shape, color, elevation, or another trait, or any new symptom such as bleeding, itching or crusting — points to danger.
a lesion with a centrally placed nevus surrounded by a white halo of depigmented skin.
It is most commonly seen in adolescence, but can be observed at any age.
Over a period of months to years, the halo nevus gradually involutes and disappears, often leaving a residual white patch.
The trigger or cause of spontaneous pigment loss in a halo nevus is not known
However, pigment loss is the result of an immunologic process in which melanocytes are destroyed
In essence, the body's immune cells attack other cells of the body
Halo Nevi
Staging of Melanoma:
Stage __ - found only in the epidermis (in situ)
Stage __ - less than 1 mm thick, no ulceration, confined to epidermis & upper dermis
Stage __ - either less than 1 mm thick w/ ulceration OR 1-2 mm thick w/o ulceration
Stage __ - either 1-2 mm thick w/ ulceration OR 2-4 mm thick w/o ulceration
Stage __ - either 2-4 mm thick w/ ulceration OR more than 4 mm thick w/o ulceration
Stage __ - more than 4 mm thick w/ ulceration
Staging of Melanoma:
Stage __ - (mets) tumor may be any thickness w/ or w/o ulceration AND has spread to 1 more lymph nodes OR spread to lymph system but no nodes OR spread to matted nodes OR satellite tumors
Stage __ - tumor may be any thickness w/ or w/o ulceration AND spread to 1 or more nodes AND to other places (distant nodes & organs)

_________ - has the highest cure rate for basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas and is the treatment of choice for locally recurrent skin cancers, offering cure rates of 95 to 97 percent
Thin layers of tissue are systematically excised and examined under a microscope for malignant cells.  When all areas of tissue are tumor-free, surgery is complete
Mohs micrographic surgery
The pathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial
Four key factors:
follicular epidermal ___________ with subsequent plugging of the follicle
excess _____
the presence and activity of ___________


Propionibacterium acnes

Acne Treatment: oral retinoids
Reducing the secretion of oils from the glands.
This is done by a daily oral intake of ________ derivatives like isotretinoin (marketed as ______,_______) over a period of 4-6 months.

dry skin and occasional ________
elevated _________ & _____
possibly depression
*________ defects* - I PLEDGE PROGRAM (2 methods of birth control)
vitamin A

Accutane, Sotret


liver enzymes & TGLs

birth defects
___________ is an uncommon and unusually severe form of acne characterized by burrowing and interconnecting ________ and irregular scars (both keloidal and atrophic), often producing pronounced disfigurement
The comedones often occur in a group of 2 or 3, and cysts contain foul-smelling seropurulent material that returns after drainage
The nodules are usually found on the chest, the shoulders, the back, the buttocks, the upper arms, the thighs, and the face
Acne conglobata (AC)

___________, also known as acne maligna, was originally described as acute febrile ulcerative acne conglobata (AC)
The primary features of this disease include sudden onset, severe and often ulcerating acne, fever, polyarthritis, and failure to respond to _________ therapy; the response to debridement in combination with steroid therapy is good
It can be the dermatologic manifestation of the synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome
Acne fulminans (AF)

__________ refers to the occurrence of keloidlike papules and plaques on the occipital scalp and the posterior part of the neck, almost exclusively in African American men
Initially, patients usually develop a chronic folliculitis and perifolliculitis of the _________ part of the scalp and the posterior part of the neck, which heal with keloidlike lesions, sometimes with discharging sinuses
They often coalesce to form one or several large plaques, which gradually enlarge for years
The lesions are often painful and cosmetically disfiguring
Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN)

_____________ is a skin condition in which a person develops small, yellowish growths, usually on the face
A variant of this condition, known as _______ condition causes tiny yellow dots in groups and sometimes in sheets on the lips, inside the mouth, and sometimes on the genital skin. In both conditions, the small, yellow spots represent an overgrowth of sebaceous glands
Sebaceous hyperplasia

_______ is an inflammatory skin condition that causes redness of the face
Its characteristics — small, red, pus-filled bumps or pustules — make rosacea often mistaken for _____
In fact, rosacea has been called adult acne or acne rosacea

Rosacea Signs and Symptoms:
Red areas on the face
Small, red bumps or pustules on the nose, cheeks, forehead and chin (not the same as whiteheads or blackheads)
Red, bulbous nose (________) – more common in men
Visible small blood vessels on nose and cheeks
Burning or gritty sensation of the eyes (_________)
Tendency to ______ or ______ easily

ocular rosacea

flush or blush
Phases of Rosacea:
________ - Rosacea may begin as a simple tendency to flush or blush easily, then progress to a persistent redness in the central portion of the face, particularly the nose. This redness results from the dilation of blood vessels close to the skin's surface.
_______ - As signs and symptoms worsen, vascular rosacea may develop — small blood vessels of the nose and cheeks swell and become visible (telangiectasia). Skin may become overly sensitive. Rosacea may also be accompanied by oily skin and dandruff.
________ - Small, red bumps or pustules may appear and persist, spreading across the nose, cheeks, forehead and chin. This is sometimes known as inflammatory rosacea

Vascular rosacea

Inflammatory rosacea
Aka _________
a chronic skin condition that causes loss of pigment, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin.
The precise etiology of the disease is complex and not fully understood.
___________ therapies to remove the white patches include corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, UV light and surgery, but they are not very effective
If repigmentation fails, the patient can opt for ________, which uses hydroquinone
In late October of 2004, doctors successfully transplanted melanocytes to vitiligo affected areas, effectively repigmenting the region. The procedure involved taking a thin layer of normally pigmented skin from the patient's gluteal region. Melanocytes were then separated out and used to make a cellular suspension. The area to be treated was then ablated with a laser, and the melanocyte graft applied
chemical depigmentation
• Stratum corneum
• Stratum lucidum
• Stratum granulosum
• Stratum spinosum or mucosum
• Stratum germinativum (also called "stratum basale")
Mneumonic: __________
"Before sex, get latex condoms" (from deep to superficial)
____________consists of small, harmless growths caused by a skin virus. They resemble pimples with a waxy, pinkish look and a small central pit. ;contagious and are spread by direct physical contact. most often in children. When found in adults the direct contact was usually sexual contact
TX: (cantharone or TCA acid) or liquid nitrogen,curette You can always consider the option of no treatment; do eventually clear on their own.
Molluscum contagiosum

-many different types
-benign growth that consists of small blood vessels. These tumors can be located anywhere on the body.
-cause is not known.
__________angiomas and are due to aging and do not have any known significance. ___________angiomas are more common in childhood and during pregnancy, and a few can appear on anyone. When present in large numbers, the may warn of ______damage.
Atrophic hyperpigmented macules on the shins, so-called _________, has been termed the most common cutaneous finding in diabetes
It is usually noted as irregularly round or oval, circumscribed, shallow lesions vary in number from few to many, which are usually bilateral but not symmetrically distributed
They are ________ and often overlooked
diabetic dermopathy

Diabetic Foot Ulcers:
__: at risk foot with no ulceration
__: superficial ulceration with no infection
__: deep ulceration exposing tendons and joints
__: extensive ulceration or abscesses
_________ is a rare fibromucinous connective tissue disorder of unknown cause
characterized by thickened and nonpitting induration of the skin occurring primarily on the _______

upper back
___________: velvety, light-brown-to-black, markings usually on the neck, under the arms or in the groin
most often associated with being _________
Acanthosis nigricans

Bacterial Endocarditis: Cutaneous manifestations
_______ (on the upper trunk, conjunctivae, mucous membranes, and distal extremities),
painful erythematous subcutaneous nodules on the tips of digits (_______)
nontender hemorrhagic macules on the palms or soles (_______)
__________-under the nails

Osler's nodes

Janeway lesions

splinter hemorrhages
__________ is an illness that involves the skin, mouth, and lymph nodes, and typically affects children who are under the age of 5
causes inflammation in the walls of small and medium-size arteries throughout the body, including the coronary arteries
Kawasaki Disease
Phases of Kawasaki Disease:

___ phase - begins with a fever, which often is higher than 104 F (39 C), spikes and remits, and lasts one to two weeks

___ phase - Peeling of the skin on the hands and feet, often in large sheets
Joint pain
Abdominal pain

___ phase - signs and symptoms slowly go away unless complications develop


____________ is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis in children and young adults in the United States
It is spread easily via respiratory secreations
caused by the gram-negative diplococcus _________
The incidence of the disease is higher in late winter and early spring

Neisseria meningitidis
Meningococcemia S/S:
________ symptoms such as fever, nausea, vomiting, myalgias, and headache
Subsequent development of ________ in these patients is indicated by nuchal rigidity and altered mental status with stupor and obtundation
_________ eruption on the trunk and lower extremities


Syphilis Stages:
______ - chancre or indurated ulcer, which may be insignificant, on the penis, vulva, lip or anus following 18-21 days after exposure
______ - florid symmetrical coppery erythematous macular exanthem that almost always involves the palms, soles and mucous membranes and is accompanied by general lymphadenopathy 3-6 weeks after the appearance of the chancre
______ - absence of symptoms but the serology is positive, and invasion of the cardiovascular or central nervous system may silently occur


_________ minor is a cutaneous eruption which may initially resemble urticaria. The lesions are red, raised, well demarcated plaques which will persist for several days to weeks. The plaques often develop a dusky center producing the classic `_______` lesion
attributed to drug therapy with _____ agents, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
Erythema multiforme


When erythema multiforme is severe, extensive, and accompanied by mucosal inflammation and sloughing in a toxic appearing patient with a high fever, a diagnosis of __________ (erythema multiforme major) is made.
pts should be treated in the ________
Stevens-Johnson syndrome

burn unit
________ may be considered an extreme form of Stevens- Johnson characterized by the acute onset of a diffuse erythroderma (usually within 48 hours of starting a drug) with the subsequent development of vesicles that coalesce to form large bullae
These bullae will then rupture and skin will tend to peel off in ______ leaving large denuded areas
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)

A ________ drug reaction (seen with sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and psoralens) involves absorption of ultraviolet radiation and the release of energy causing damage to epidermal cells
An exaggerated sunburn but almost any morphology can occur including bullous eruptions and hyperpigmentation
A _________ drug reaction (seen with griseofulvin, thiazides, and chlorpromazine) occurs when ultraviolet energy causes the drug hapten to bind to native protein on epidermal cells, thereby creating a complete antigen that sensitizes nearby lymphocytes. This manifests as a pruritic eczematous eruption on sun exposed areas
Anaphylaxis Treatment - Administer __________ into a different extremity immediately (the _____ muscle is preferable)
IM epinephrine

______ is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the upper layers of the skin
broadly applied to a range of persistent or recurring skin rashes characterized by redness, skin edema, itching and dryness, with possible crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing or bleeding
Diagnosis is typically made ________

______ eczema (aka infantile e., flexural e., atopic dermatitis) is thought to be hereditary, and often runs in families whose members also have hay fever and asthma.
Itchy rash is particularly noticeable on face and scalp, neck, inside of elbows, behind knees, and buttocks.
It is very common in developed countries, and rising
________ dermatitis is of two types: allergic (resulting from a delayed reaction to some allergen, such as poison ivy or nickel), and irritant (resulting from direct reaction to, say, a solvent).
About three quarters of cases of contact eczema are of the ______ type, which is the most common occupational skin disease

______ eczema (aka asteatotic e., e. craquele or craquelatum, winter itch, pruritus hiemalis) is dry skin that becomes so serious it turns into eczema.
It worsens in dry winter weather, and limbs and trunk are most often affected.
The itchy, tender skin resembles a dry, cracked, river bed
This disorder is very common among the older population
Ichthyosis is a related disorder.
________ dermatitis (aka cradle cap in infants, dandruff) causes dry or greasy scaling of the scalp and eyebrows.
Scaly pimples and red patches sometimes appear in various adjacent places.
In newborns it causes a thick, yellow crusty scalp rash called cradle cap which seems related to lack of _____, and is often curable.

-common skin disease.
-rash that can last from several weeks to several months.
-spring and the fall,
-adolescents and young adults.
-distinctive pattern. In 3/4 of the cases, a single, isolated oval scaly patch (the "_________") appears on the body, particularly on the trunk, upper arms, neck, or thighs. Often, the herald patch is mistaken for _______(tinea corporis) or eczema. Within a week or two more pink patches will occur on the body and on the arms and legs. These patches often form a pattern over the back resembling the outline of an evergreen tree with dropping branches. Patches may also appear on the neck and, rarely, on the face. These spots usually are smaller than the "herald" patch. The rash begins to heal after 2-4 weeks and is usually gone by 6-14.The cause is unproven. When there is no "herald" patch, reactions to medications, infection with fungus or syphilis or other skin diseases may resemble this rash.
Pityriasis Rosea

herald patch

_________ is a common condition of the beard area occurring in up to 60% African American men and other people with curly hair. The problem results when highly curved hairs grow back into the skin causing inflammation and a foreign body reaction. Over time, this can cause keloidal scarring which looks like hard bumps of the beard area and neck. A 100% effective treatment is to let the beard grow. For most cases, totally avoid shaving for 3 to 4 weeks until all lesions have subsided, while applying a mild prescription cortisone cream to the involved skin each morning. _________and laser hair removal should be considered when all else fails, but these are expensive and take repeated visits.
Pseudofolliculitis Barbae

________ -flaking skin, or reddish patches.
-usually oily,itchy on the face, may cause embarrassment.
- not contagious.
-Scales form on reddened skin.

In adults affects the scalp, eyebrows, ear canals, sides of the nose, and behind the ears.;the armpits, chest , groin area. _________,
Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis
- shampoos containing _______(Head and shoulders, ZNP bar), _______(Selsun blue and prescription strength Selsun) or __________(Nizoral AD and prescription strength Nizoral).

Other shampoo ingredients are salicylic acid, coal tar, and sulfur.

- the next step _______ lotion once or twice a day.
Finally, an overnight medication under a shower cap may be needed for stubborn cases.
zinc pyrithione
selenium sulfide

Your skin needs moisture to stay smooth and supple
-difficult in winter.
Simple daily routines actually remove moisture from the skin.
-Modifying your bathing routine will help preserve moisture.
Generally, _______-based lotions (Lubriderm, Keri lotion, others) are best cosmetically but oil-based creams are more effective in trapping moisture.
Dry Skin (xerosis)
or clogging of their apocrine glands. It causes chronic scarring and pus formation of the underarms (axilla) and groin/inner thigh areas
-Bacterial infection produces the pain and odor
-worse under stress.
- not by poor hygiene.
Hidradenitis Suppurativa
Hidradenitis Suppurativa
--________antibiotics (minocycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, Augmentin, others)
-________antibiotics (clindamycin or erythromycin).
-Intralesional injections
-. Anti-inflammatory pills
-birth control pills
-spironolactone pills
_________-episodes lasting months to years.
-shiny, flat-topped bumps that often have an angular shape. These bumps have a reddish-purplish color with a shiny cast due to a very fine scale.
-anywhere on the skin, but often favors the inside of the wrists and ankles, the lower legs, back, and neck. The mouth, genital region, hair and nails are affected in some individuals. Thick patches may occur, especially on the shins. About 20 percent of the time causes minimal symptoms and needs no treatment. However, in many cases the itching can be constant and intense.

- no cure
-relieving itching and improving appearance of the rash
-Topical corticosteroids are very useful.
-Antihistamines may be prescribed to relieve itching.
-corticosteroid (cortisone, prednisone)
-photo chemotherapy light treatment (PUVA), the retinoids drugs (Soriatane and Accutane), Neoral and Plaquenil.

As it heals, a dark brown discoloration of the skin. Like the bumps themselves, these stains may eventually fade with time without treatment. About one out of five people will have a second attack
Lichen planus
_______most commonly affects the inside of the cheeks, gums and tongue.
-lasts longer than skin type
-patches of fine white lines and dots.
-painful sores and ulcers in the mouth.
-increased risk of oral cancer
Lichen planus of the mouth
Nail changes 10 percent of lichen planus cases
-damage to the nail ______, or nail ______.
- few fingernails or toenails
-longitudinal riding and grooving, splitting, nail thinning and nail loss. In severe cases, the nail may be temporarily or permanently destroyed.
______are benign lesions that occur on the sun-exposed areas of the body.
- backs of hands and face
-increase with age
- 0.2- 2 cm.
-flat discrete borders, dark ,irregular
- biopsy to rule out cancer.
-treatment is not necessary.
-cryotherapy, hydroquinone preparations (bleaching preparations), retinoids, chemical peels or lasers.
-avoid any excessive sunlight
Lentigines, or liver spots
-form of 'panniculitis' or inflammation of subcutaneous fat tissue.
-painful, especially if pressed upon.
-looks like painful bruises on both shins.
-bumps on knees, elbows, forearms and thighs.
-feel ill, like "flu".
- slightly raised and bright red.
-one half inch to several inches
-purplish red then yellowish

-cause:medications, (sulfa and oral birth control),
-infections are the largest cause including 'Strep" throat, TB and others.

ddx: insect bites, bruising, pancreatitis and phlebitis.
- biopsy , blood test,cxr

-treatment: remove the cause. Sometimes no cause is found, and complete resolution takes four to six weeks. (NSAID's-ibuprofen, Alleve and others) and bed rest may Injections , Oral KI
Erythema Nodosum
________ is an immune-mediated disease which affects the skin and joints.
It commonly causes red scaly patches to appear on the skin. (plaques)
Plaques are areas of excessive skin cell production and inflammation. Skin rapidly accumulates at these sites and sometimes takes a silvery-white appearance.
_______ psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris) is the most common form of psoriasis

_______ psoriasis (inverse psoriasis) appears as smooth inflamed patches of skin

________ psoriasis is characterized by numerous small oval (teardrop-shaped) spots

_________ psoriasis appears as raised bumps that are filled with non-infectious pus (pustules).



______ psoriasis produces a variety of changes in the appearance of finger and toe nails

________ arthritis involves joint and connective tissue inflammation

_________ psoriasis involves the widespread inflammation and exfoliation of the skin over most of the body


For psoriasis the therapeutic property of sunlight is due to the wavelengths classified as ___________
________ and ultraviolet A phototherapy (PUVA) combines the oral or topical administration of psoralen with exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light
Long-term treatment is associated with squamous-cell and melanoma ________
ultraviolet (UV) light


skin cancer
SLE characteristic feature is a rash sparing the nasolabial folds - _________
malar rash
_____________ is connective-tissue disease that is characterized by inflammation of the muscles and the skin
Up to 50% of the cases may be a paraneoplastic phenomenon, indicating the presence of _______
The _______ rash consists of a violaceous to dusky erythematous rash with or without edema in a symmetrical distribution involving the periorbital skin


__________ is a condition that causes some areas of your body — such as your fingers, toes, tip of your nose and your ears — to feel numb and cool in response to cold temperatures or stress. It's a disorder of the blood vessels that supply blood to your skin
more a ________ than a disability
Raynaud's disease

__________ - a rare, progressive disease that leads to hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues
starts with a few _______ of skin on the hands or face that begin getting thicker and harder

dry patches
Sarcoidosis is a multi system disorder characterized in affected organs by a type of inflammation called ________
presents without symptoms but with an abnormal _________
disease usually regresses spontaneously within _____ of initial presentation

chest radiograph

two years
ITP, also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is classified as an autoimmune disease - _________ are the target
children with ITP have a very low platelet count - causes sudden bleeding
The usual symptoms are ________ and the tiny red dots on the skin
_________ and bleeding gums are common
adults have noticed increased bleeding and easy bruising for several weeks, or even months
In women, increased ________ blood flow is a major sign.



_______ disease (erythema infectiosum)-- a common childhood infection causing a _______ appearance and a rash
caused by ___________
It most commonly affects young children and often occurs in several members of the family or school class

slapped cheek

Parvovirus B19
– where individuals persistantly pull out hairs resulting is an exam revealing short broken hairs in patches . This may be a manifestation of OCD. Treatment is behavioral therapy
________, an autoimmune disease, presents as an anagen effluvium. Autoimmune inflammation around the hair follicle aborts hair growth.
Changes in chemical or physical structure of the hair shafts result in hair shaft abnormalities (trichodystrophies).

- scalp condition, pattern of hair loss, and length and diameter of hair fibers.
hair pulls, clippings, plucks, and collections (shed hair), light microscopy examination of hair fibers, scrapings of scalp scales for bacterial and fungal culture, and a scalp punch biopsy
Alopecia areata
Treatment: Alopecia Areata
For mild to moderate patchy disease, topical ________are the preferred treatment.
For more extensive or recalcitrant disease, _________ suspension (Kenalog)
topical ________(Rogaine), anthralin (Dritho-Scalp, Micanol), and topical contact sensitizers such as dinitrochlorobenzene, and squaric acid dibutylester. UVA
triamcinolone acetonide
_________is an inflammation of the proximal and lateral nail folds characterized by erythema, edema, and pain.
Purulent drainage with compression behind the cuticle may also occur.
-Trauma is often the initial event with secondary infection with S aureus or Strept pyogenes.
TX: compresses ,________ AB
acute paronychia
- longitudinal striations or ridging of the nails.
- simply reflect advanced age
-usually persistent
________ is a superficial infection of the hair follicles characterized by erythematous, follicular-based papules and pustules

________ are deeper infections of the hair follicle characterized by inflammatory

__________ are larger and deeper inflammatory nodules, often with purulent drainage, and commonly occur on the nape of the neck, back, or thighs


Topical treatment with ________ 1% or ________ 2%, with an antibacterial wash or soap, is adequate for most patients with folliculitis

Systemic _________ antibiotics are usually necessary for furuncles and carbuncles, especially when cellulitis or constitutional symptoms are present

larger furuncles and carbuncles often warrant _________
clindamycin or erythromycin


incision and drainage
Erysipelas is a superficial _________ infection of the skin.
______ is a deeper process that extends to the subcutis
_______ & _______ are the most common pathogens
oral ________ antibiotic is the treatment of choice for cellulitis; parenteral therapy is warranted for patients with extensive disease or with systemic symptoms as well as for immunocompromised patients.


S aureus and S pyogenes

_______ is a collection of pus and infected material in or on the skin
Major complications are spreading of the abscess material to adjacent or remote tissues and extensive regional tissue death (______)
________ & _______ of the abscess is usually indicated
_______ is a common cause
skin abscess


Incision and drainage

S aureus
_________ is a rare infection of the subcutaneous tissues and fascia that eventually leads to necrosis
_______ may be the sole pathogen responsible but most patients have a mixed infection
he most common site for infection is the ____, followed by the perineum
*_______* - crunching feeling upon palpation due to air in the subcutaneous tissue
Necrotizing fasciitis

S pyogenes


Normal Hair cycling
Scalp hair grows in an asynchronous pattern, with approximately 80% of hair follicles in an active growing phase (_______) and 10% to 20% in an involuting(__________) and resting phase(__________)
Telogen hair fibers shed in 3 to 5 months and are responsible for daily hair shed.