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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bacterial fermentation
how bacteria obtain ATP w/o Oxygen, causing dental caries and periodontal disease
composed of atoms
positively charged particles
fleeting, negatively charged particles of insignificant mass and arranged in a clous
what prevents the collapse of protons and neutrons?
electron cloud
what holds the atomic nucleus together?
uncharged particles w/mass like protons. they supply the florce that holds the atomic n. together. they movement and cloud like structure of e-prevent their collapse into the nucleus
atomic number
number of protons in at atomic nucleus, differentiates the elements
what number differentiates each element
the atomic number
since atoms are electrically neutral what acconts for the different chemical reactivity of different elements?
chemical reactivity
atomic mass
sum of number of protons and neutrons in an elements atomic nucleus
elements whose atoms have different number of neutrons and therefore a different atomic mass

since protons number is the same, they still are the same element but just has a different mass
a rare isotope
"heavy hydrogen"

its atomic weight is 2, but its atomic number is 1 bc it only has one proton
third isotope of hydrogen
3 hydrogent isotopes
tritium and its radioactive qualities

it decays into helium which is stable. helium has molecular mass of 3daltons instead of 4

when tritium decays to helium, it emits beta partilces that are weak and that require a detector that emits a beam of light when exposed to the particle
why is tritium radioactive?
bc one of the tritium neutrons decaying into a proton and electron, forming a different element, helium. the emitted beta particle is fast moving electron-like particle that may be positively or negatively charged
number of neutrons regualr hydrggen has?
hydrogen isotope that is v.unstable w/2neutrons

one neutron decays to form a proton and an electron to make helium
carbon predominant stable isotope
carbon 12

carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons w/ atomic mass of 12 daltons
Carbon atom w/6 protons and 8 neutrons

C14 is v.unstable and radioactive

A neutron decays into a prton and electron, giving out a beta emission more powerful than tritiums. the Atoms of C14 change into an isotoope of nitrogen, 7protons and 7neutrons.
describe radioactive C14 in atmosphere
it is constant in atmosphere bc synthesis and decay are always occurring

the energy of cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere carry out reverse rxn on nitrogen to make C14 in the atmosphere
phosphorous short lived isootope which emits strong beta radiation unlike that from C14 or H3 isotopes
how are radioactive isotope synthesized for biochem in med?
in a nuclear reactor
uses of radioactive elements in biochem
follow biochemical rxn and Id metabolic or polymer interactions
uses of radioactive elements in medicine
targeted to cancer cell by radioactive chemical. the best known example is radioactive thyroxine which interacts w/certain tumore of the thyroid gland
uses of radioactive elements in dating prehistoric bones and teeth
C14 is replenished in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays (change nitrongen into C14)

it is rapidly oxidized to 14CO2 and dispersed. the ratio of C14 to C12 is constant over time. When plants or animals die, C14 is not re;lenished and decays slowly. from the ratio of C14 to C12 and the total carbon content of a sample, it is possible to determine how much C14 was lost relative to the current ratio and therefroe how long ageo the bone or tooth was part of a living organism.

the half life of C14 is 12000 years, it can only date artifacts up to 40,000years old
8 protons
8 nuetrons

atomic number of 8
atomic weight of 16
where do most neutrons appear?
in heavier elements beginning w/fluorine
9 protons
10 neutrons
atomic number of 9
atomic weith of 19
major ions
Major contributors to carbon
trace elements
what determine the chemical properties of each element?
how are e- arranged?
in one or more shells surrongding the nucleus. when e-fill a shell completely the element is stable
noble gas
stable element
where electrons fill a shell completely

molecule compositon
molecules are composed of atoms that have taken part in chemical rxn and have lost or gained or shared the e- to complete their shells
structure of matter
protons (+)
electrons (-)
what is known as proton glue?
atomic weight
aprrox the number of neutrons and protons in each element or isotope. e- have no mass
molecules form by elements completing electron shells by donating or sharing e- w/themselves or other elements
emission of positively or negatively charged particles when neutrons decay into protons. it is used to follow biochemical rxn, target cancer cells in medincine, and determine the age of relatively recent prehistoric bones and teeth
elecrically charged atomic or molecular particles that forms an electrostatic bond
examples of H cations and anions
by electrostatic attraction (bonding)

hydrogen forms a cation w/Chloride or an anion w/lithium. these rxn provide nrg
formed when element or molecule LOSES an e- and becomes positively charged

formed when elements or molecules GAINs an electron and becomes negatively charged

elecrostatically bonded solids they ahve a regular repeating number of ions in an electrically neutral geometric shape, a crystal cell.
major electrostatically boned solid crystal in body
calcium phosphate

major crystal in bone it forms hydroxappetite
amorphous solids
electrostatically bonded solids that have no crystal cell

amorphous solids such as proteins may crystallize if allowed to precipitate under certiain conditions
what are teeth and bone composed of?
complex mixture of calcium phosphate crystals around a protein matrix
what do number of protons, neutrons, and electrons each specify for an atom?
protons specify atomic number and elements

neutrons specify isotopes

electrons specify chemical reactivity

the number of protons and e- are ALWAYS the same to keep elecrical charge of an atom neutral
what physcial parameter differentiates any isotope?
the mass of the atom, which depends on the number of neutrons present
how are organic molecules formed/
by electrron sharing

ex:carbon atoms usually share e- with another carbon,hydrogen,nitrogen, or oxygen atoms
water bonding
water consist of covalently bonded hydrogen and oxygen

the 8protons in O2 make its nucleus electon attraction compared w/hydrogen which only has one proton. the water molecule is stable but polarized
why is water liquid?
due to hydrogen bonding

between electronegative Oxygen and postive Hydrgen
what do polarized carbon bonds provide?
when is oxygen-carbon bond very strongly e- withdrawing?
single oxygen-carbon bond in aldehydes,ketones, and carboxy acids are very strongly e- withdrawing
what is the most e-withdrawing (in order) the C-O bond in aldehydes,ketones, and carboxy acids, the N in amines or sulfur atoms?
the single oxygen carbon bond in aldehydes,ketones, and carboxy acids are very strong

nitrogen atom in amines and amides is less e- withdrawing.

sulfer atoms withdraw e- from carbon like nitrgen
is H-C bond polarized?
no H-C share e- equally so they are nonpolarized bonds and are less reactive than polar bonds

nonpolar bonds are v.non soluable (fa hydrocarbons)
soluble cations and anions and crystalline and amorphous solids
examples of covalent polar bond



example of covalent non polar bonds
e- withdrawing property of a substiuent like oxygen

it imparts chemical reactivity to organic molecules
what is hydrogen bonding induced by?
polar covalent bonding
what is fermentation?
respiration w/o oxygen
what happens in photosynthesis?
sunlight oxidizes water to molecular oxygen
what happens in respiration/
chemical rxns reduce molecular oxygen to water
what happens in fermentaiton?
oxygen is not involved. In saccharolytic fermentaions, carbs like sucroose and glucose are degraded to pyruvate and NADH + H+. Pyruvate gains e- by regenerating NAD+ and begin reduced to lactate
where does fermentation mainly occur?
in bacteria
what is initial factor that causes cavities from glucose and sucrose?
bacteria fermenting dietary sucrose to lactate and other acids
what is periodontal disease associated w/?
bacteria in gingival pockets hydrolyzing host proteins and releasing free aa that are fermented to ammonia and short chain fatty acids

bacteria have no urea cycles to remove ammonia so this makes ammonia pocket with a very hi pH
major cause of dental caries
fermentaion of ingested sucrose

bacteria adherent on teeth surfaces ferment the sucrose to get nrg (ATP ) without oxygen

the process causes production of lactate by glycolysis which supports bacterial growth and causes cavities at the tooth surface
what does saccharolytic fermentation cause
dental caries
what does asaccharolytic fermentaion cause
perio disease
saccharolytic fermentiaon
hexose splits into 2(3)C trisose phosphates (this costs one ATP)

triose phosphate gives tkes an e- from NAD+ to make pyruvate (makes 2 ATP)

pyruvate gives a e- to NADH to make lactate
Asaccharolytic fermentation

perio disease process
proteins break down into aa like alanine

alanine (NAD and H2O) become pyruvate + NADH +ammonia
describe common characteristics of oral bacteria
micor aerophillic and require CO2 and are either saccharolytic or asaccharolytic
saccharolytic bacteria
usually lie on coronal surfaces of teeth and mucosa

grow by hydrolying carbs from cell surfaces, saliva or food

lactic acid is produced by glycolysis

inclue many of bacteria involved in causing cavities
Asaccharolytic bacteria
ususally lie subgingivally beneath free gingival margins or in crypts and deep fold of oral mucosa

mostly grwo on amino acids derived from hydrolyzing proteins

products are ammonia,hydrogen sulfide, and short chain fa

include many bacteria w/perio disease
bacteria major cell structures




plasma membrane

cell wall to protect against pH

capsule to allow bacteria to stick
nucleiod in prokaryotes
DNA is confined to this central region

not bounded by a membrane it is visibly distinct from rest of cell interior
ribomses in prokaryotes
give cytoplasm or bacteria granular appearance
plasma membrane of bacteria cell
lipid bilayer

numerious prtoteins moving wi or upon layer thatr are primarily responsible fro transport of ions, nutrients and wast across membrane
Cell wall of prokaryote
peptidoglycan (polysac + proteins) it maintains overall shape of bacterial cell, coccus, bacillus, and spirillius
capsule of bacteria
layer of polysac that protects bacterial cell and serves as barrier
appendages of bacteria

pili of bacteria
hollow hairlike structure of proteins that allow bacteria to attach to surface and each other so taht they form a biofilm

the bacteria on teeth invaribaly form a biofilm that enhances growth of bacteria

a specailized pilus, the sex pilus allows the transfer of genomic DNA from one bacteria cell to anothe. Pili are called fibriae
cause motility

long appendages that rotate by means of motor located just under cytoplasmic membrane

bacteria may have one or few or mnay flagells on cell