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67 Cards in this Set

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What is Pharmacology?
The basic medical science that deals with the study of drugs.
What is dosage?
The amount of medication to be administered.
Dosage is listed as ___________ and are known as ___________.
Therapeutic Dose
"Usual adult dose"
The Therapeutic Dose is also referred to as?
1. Normal adult Dose
2. The usual Dose
3. Average Dose
What is Dosage range?
Applies to the range beteeen the MINIMUM amount of the drug and the MAXIMUM amount of the drug required to produce the desired effect.
What is a TOXIC dose?
The amount of a drug that will produce symptoms of poisoning.
What is a MINIMUM LETHAL Dose?
The least amount of a drug that can produce death.
What two factors determine the influence of a dose?
Age and weight.
What is the most common factor which influences the amount of the drug to be given?
AGE.
Who are more susceptible to drug action?
INFANTS
CHILDREN
ELDERLY
What are the methods of administration of drugs?
PARENTERNAL
ORAL
INHALATION
TOPICAL
Infiltration is?
A method of administering drugs. It is commonly used to anesthetize maxillary teeth.
What is a block?
The most effective means to achive anesthesia of the mandibular teeth.
What is another name for a mandibular block?
Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block
What is Periodontal Ligmment injection?
Can be used nstead of Infiltration Injection. The needle is placed directly into the peridontal Ligament along the side of the tooth. Solution is deposited under pressure. PAINFUL!!!!!
Another route closely associated with oral is?
SUBLINGUAL
What are the three types of Inhalation?
Vaporization
Nebulization
Gas Inhalation
What is BUMEDINST 6710.67?
Guidance to DTF for the administration of outpatient anesthetic services in IV sedation to dental patients
What is BUMEDINST 6710.68
Guidance to DTF for the administration of Nitrous oxide (N2O-O2)
What is the most common type of gas inhalation?
Nirtous Oxide Sedation.
What us the defination of a drug?
Any chemical substance which has an effect on living tissue but is not used for food.
What are the classifications of drugs?
General
Chemical
Theapeutic
General Drugs Are?
Grouped according to source, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral in composition.
Chemical Drugs are?
Medications are grouped by chemical characteristics. e.g. acids, bases or salts.
Therapeutic (PHARMACOLOGICAL)
drugs?
Classified according to action on the body.
Drugs classifications can be further divided into?
CONTROLLED AND NONCONTROLLED.
Non Controlled drugs are?
Non prescription, over the counter drugs.
Controlled drugs are?
Prescription drugs which have the potential for abuse.
Controlled drugs are characterized into_______schedules
FIVE
Acids
Very caustic and present a sour taste
Emollients
Blan or fatty acids that may be applied to the skin to make it more pliable and soft.
Examples of Emmollients?
Cocoa Butter (Theobroma Oil)
Petrolatum
These drugs and chemicals are primary intendd for the preventions of infections by destroying microorganisms or preventing their growth.
Desinfectants
Antiseptics
Germicides
Chemical Compounds which stop the growth of or desrtoy different types of bacteria and other microorganisms
ANTIBIOTICS
Patients having history of infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, artifical heart valves are prescribed?
Antibiotics.
Large dose before treatment; smaller dose 6 hours after inital dose.
What is one of the most important anitbiotics?
PENICILLIN
One of the most effective abd least toxic antimicrobial agents
A group of antibiotics that are structurally and pharmacologically related to?
PENICILLIN
Tetracyclines?
Introduced in 1948, were the first truly broad spectrum antibiotics. Not given to women and children. Discolouration of teeth and slows bone marrow growth.
Erythromycin
Has a bitter taste and is destroyed by gastric acids. Drug of choice when pencillin is contraindicated
Drugs that relieve pain without producing unconsciousness or imparing mental capacities
ANALGESICS
What drug(s) lowers increased body temperature?
ANTIPYRETICS
What is the ECONOMICAL, ANALGESICS,ANTIPYRETIC and ANTI-INFLAMMATORY agent used for mild to moderate pain?
ASPRIN!!!!!
This drug is not given to third trimester patients or anyone with history of gastrointestinal bleeding.
IBUPROFEN
The most important of the Alkaloid-based drugs are?
MORPHINE and CODEINE
This drug is indicated for the reliefe of severe pain
and used preoperatively to sedate patients, treat myocardial infractions and is used in casualty care?
MORPHINE SULFATE
What drug has 1/6 the analgesic power and 1/4 of the respiratory depressent of Morphine
CODENIE SULFATE
Waht is MEPERIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE?
DEMEROL. Synthetic anagesic similar to Morphine.
What drug is used primarily in casualty care?
AMYL NITRATE
This drug is indicated for the treatment and management of acute and chronic angina pectoris
NITROGLYCERINE
Vasoconstrictors
These drugs produce constriction of the blood vessels with consequent rise in blood pressure.
Dentistry uses of epinephrine
To help control diffuse bleeding and can be used to treat severe allergic reactions such as anaphylatic shock.
Hemostatics
Any agents, mechanical or chemical, that arrest bleeding.
Anticoagulants
A group of drugs which delay or prevent blood coagulation. A commonly used one in dentistry is heparin sodium.
Anesthesia
A partial or total absence of sensation to stimuli, such as cold, heat, or painful irritation.
Forms of dental anesthesia
Gas, local and topical to control pain and relax patients.
Nitrous oxide sedation
Most commonly used gas in dentistry.
Inhalation sedation mixture
40% nitrous oxide/60% oxygen.
(N20-02)delivered through a gas machine to produce a conscious sedation.
Advantages of N20-02
Rapid onset of action

Good control of the depth of sedation

Rapid and complete recovery
Local anesthetics
Temporarily prevent the conduction of sensory impulses such as pain, touch, and thermal changes from a body part along nerve pathways to the brain.
Amides
Organic compounds derived from ammonia. Some examples are lidocaine, bupivacaine and mepivacaine.
Esters
Compounds formed derived from alcohols and acids by the removal of water. Some examples are procaine and propoxycaine.
2% Lidocaine hydrochloride

2% Mepivacaine
The two most common local anesthetics used in dentistry.
Vasoconstrictors
These drugs produce constriction of the blood vessels with consequent rise in blood pressure.
Dentistry uses of epinephrine
To help control diffuse bleeding and can be used to treat severe allergic reactions such as anaphylatic shock.
Hemostatics
Any agents, mechanical or chemical, that arrest bleeding.
Anticoagulants
A group of drugs which delay or prevent blood coagulation. A commonly used one in dentistry is heparin sodium.
Anesthesia
A partial or total absence of sensation to stimuli, such as cold, heat, or painful irritation.