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39 Cards in this Set

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Matter is composed of:
atoms; protons, electrons, neutrons

movie: web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-atoms.htm
Atomic #=
# of protons; electron number
Atomic Mass=
# of protons and neutrons
Isotopes have a different number of;
neutrons
Deuterium has an atomic weight of ____ and an atomic number of _____.
2; 1
Tritium is a 3rd isotope of;
hydrogen
What are some characteristics of Tritium?
radioactive, decays into a rare stable isotope of helium and emits a beta particle
Tritium radioactivity is due to what?
one of the tritium neutrons decaying into a proton and electron, forming a different element. The b particle can be positive or negative charged
Why is C(14) important?
it is unstable and radioactive. It changes into nitrogen (7 protons, 7neut). The amount in the atmosphere is constant.
What is the half life of Phosphorus
14 days
How are these radioactive elements helpful? in biochemistry
to follow biochemical reactions and identify interactions
How are these radioactive elements helpful? in medicine
target cancer (thyroxine)
How are these radioactive elements helpful? in dating bones and teeth
ratio of c14 to c12 is ~constant over time. When organism dies the c14 is not replinished. c14 1/2 life is 12,00 years and can date back to 40,000 yrs.
What is significant about Fluorine? (it atomic # and mass)
It has an extra neutron....9 protons and 10 neutrons. atomic mass of 19
Look at elements of life periodic table slide
you suck
what determines the chemical properties of each element?
electrons
______ are composed of atoms that have taken part in a chemical reaction and have lost or gained or shared electrons to complete their shells.
Molecules
What is an ion?
the electrically charged atomic or molecular particle that forms an electrostatic bond.
Hydrogen forms a ______ with Cl but a ______ with NAD+
cation; anion
Cations are formed when an element (reduces/oxidizes)
Anions (same Q)
1. oxidized 2. reduced
Crystals are what?
electrostatically-boonded solides. They have a regular repeating number of ions in an electrically neutral geometric shape, a CRYSTAL CELL.
What is the major Crystal in the body?
Calcium phosphate (in bone)
Amorphous Solids...
electrostatically bonded with no crystal cell.
Go over covalent bonding and polarity on your own
slides 15-18
sunlight oxidizes water to molecular oxygen in ....
photosynthesis
chemical reactions reduce molecular oxygen to water in ....
respiration
carbohydrates are degraded to pyruvate and NADH H. Pyruvate gainse electrons by regenerating and NAD is reduced to ______. (what reaction is this and what is the blank)
fermentation; lactate
______is caused by bacteria fermenting dietary sucrose to lactate and other acids
Caries
_______________ is associated with bacteria in the gingival pockets hydrolyzing host proteins and releasing free amino acids that are fermented to _________
Periodontal Disease; ammonia and short chain fatty acids
T/F Bacteria have a urea cycle to remove ammonia.
F false fools.
Saccharolytic bacteria ferment _______
carbohydrates
Describe the saccharolytic fermentation (caries) pathway! (crazy!)
Hexose C4 changes into (2) triose phosphates (using 2 atp in the process). These are then converted to pyruvate C3 which adds 4 atps (converting NAD+ to NADH + H). Pyruvate is converted to Lactate C3 (converting the NADH + H back to NAD+).
Describe the Assacharolytic fermentation (periodontal disease) pathway. Suck too.
Proteins ----> amino acids --->alanine (know structure)--(+NAD ; +h2o)--->pyruvate +NADH +Ammonia
_______ adherent to teeth surfaces ferment the sucrose to obtain energy withouth_______
1. bacteria
2. oxygen
production of what? causes cavities at the tooth surface
lactate
Most oral bacteria are ___________, require CO2 and are either saccarolytic or asaccharolytic
micro-aerophillic
Saccharolytic bacteria usually lie on the ______surface of teeth. Grow by hydrolyzing carbs from cell surface, saliva or food. Lactic acid is produced by _______.
1. coronal
2. glycolysis
Asaccharolytic usually lie _________ _____ . Products are ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and short chain fatty acids _____ ___ ____________________________.
1. subgingivally beneath the free ginigival margins, or in crypts an d deep folds of the oral mucosa.
2.which are meade by oxidizing the amino acid residue with NADH produced by amino to keto conversion.
What are some cell structures of a bacterial cell.
pilus, nucleoid, ribosomes, flagellum, plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule. Look at slide with characteristics of each of these structures.