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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is atomic mass?
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an element's nucleus
What is an isotope?
elements whose atoms have a different number of neutrons
What is tritium?
a radioactive, rarely occurring third isotope of hydrogen; a proton with 2 neutrons; releases weak B-particle
T of F: A B particle is fast moving that may be positively (positron) or negatively (electron) charged
T of F: C-12 is the radioactive, unstable form of carbon
FALSE C-12 is the predominant, stable carbon isotope. C-14 is the more powerful B-particle emitting isotope
How are radioactive elements used?
in biochem, medicine (target cancer cells), dating prehistoric bones and teeth
Describe the element fluorine.
has 9 protons but 10 neutrons, thus an atomic # of 9 and atomic weight of 19 daltons
What elements of life are major ions?
Na Mg K Ca Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Cl I
What elements of life are major contributors with carbon?
What elements of life are in trace amounts?
F V Cr Mo B Al Si As Se Br
What determines the chemical properties of each element?
T of F: Cations form from an oxidized element and anions form from a reduced element
What is the major electrostatically-bonded solid in the body?
Calcium Phosphate
T of F: Amorphous solids are electrostatically-bonded solids that have a crystal cell
FALSE; they have no crystal cell
What is the general composition of teeth and bones?
a complex mixture of calcium phosphate crystals around a protein matrix
How are organic molecules formed?
by electron sharing
Why is water a liquid?
because of hydrogen bonding (similar to what occurs in proteins)
What are some examples of covalent polar bonds?
What are some examples of covalent apolar bonds?
(hydrophobic) C-C C-H
What is polarity?
the electron withdrawing property of a substituent; it imparts chemical reactivity to organic molecules
What is fermentation?
respiration without oxygen; mainly occurs in bacteria although it plays minor roles in our muscles
What happens in photosynthesis?
sunlight oxidizes water to molecular oxygen
What happens in respiration?
chemical reactions reduce molecular oxygen to water
What are caries caused by?
bacteria fermenting dietary sucrose to lactate and other acids
What is associated with periodontal disease?
bacteria in gingival pockets hydrolyzing host proteins and releasing free amino acids that are fermented to ammonia and short chain fatty acids
Does bacteria have a urea cycle to remove ammonia?
How does calcium precipitate in the blood?
it precipitates in an alkali environment caused by NH2 grabbing hydrogens to become NH3+
Generalize oral bacteria
micro-aerophilic, require CO2, and are either saccharolytic or asaccharolytic
Which type of bacteria is involved with causing cavities?
saccharolytic; produces lactic acid (coronal surfaces of teeth and mucosa)
Which type of bacteria is associated with periodontal disease?
asaccharolytic; produces ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and short chain amino acids (subgingival)