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201 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Do most premolars have four lobes and where are they?
What premolar is the exception?
-yes,three facial and one lingual
-mandibular second premolars
What are the two forms of mandibular second premolars?
-one type has two cusps B & L
-one type has three cusps 1B & 2L
How many lobes are in the 3 cusp type mandibular premolar?
5 lobes
How many lobes are in the 2 cusp type mandibular premolar?
4 lobes
How many lobes does the average maxillary and mandibular first molars have?
5 lobes
How many lobes does the average maxillary and mandibular second molars have?
4 lobes
What is a groove/developmental groove?
a linear channel on the surface of the tooth, usually the junction of the dental lobes
What is a fissure?
a developmental linear cleft, the result of incomplete fusion of the enamel of adjoining dental lobes
What is a pit?
is a pinpoin fissure or the junction of several fissures
What is the central developmental groove of the premolars?
is the demarcation between the facial lobes and the lingual lobe(s)
What separates the lingual cusps of mandibular premolars that have two lingual cusps.
lingual developmental groove
What are the vertical developmental depressions on the facial surfaces of premolars called?
mesiobuccal and distobuccal developmental depressions
What is the groove called that separates the two buccal and two lingual lobes of maxillary first molar?
central developmental groove
What groove separates the two buccal cusps on maxillary first molars?
the buccal developmental groove
What groove separates the mesiolingual and the distolingual lobes on the maxillary first molar?
distolingual developmental groove
Where are the lobes of the maxillary first molar?
-two on the B
-three on the L
***the third lobe in on the cusp of carribelli
Where are the lobes on the mandibular first molar?
-three on the B
-two on the L
What are the names of the mandibular first molar's buccal cusps?
-mesiobuccal cusp
-distobuccal cusp
-distal cusp
What is the groove called that separates the distal cusp from the distobuccal lobe/cusp on the mandibular first molar?
distobuccal groove
What is the groove called that separates the distobuccal lobe from the mesiobuccal lobe on the mandibular first molar?
buccal groove
How many lobes does the mandibular second molar have?
What do they not have that the first mandibular molar does?
-4 lobes
-no distobuccal developmental groove and distal lobe
What groove separates the buccal lobes from the two lingual grooves on the mandibular molars?
the central groove
What groove separates the two lingual lobes on the mandibular molars?
lingual developmental groove
When the teeth are viewed from the side, what type of angulation of the teeth is present?
mesial angulation of the teeth
(midline of the teeth tilt towards the mesial)
When teeth are viewed from the anterior or posterior aspect the crowns of the max post teeth have a ____________, while the crowns of the mand post teeth have a ____________.
-buccal inclination
-lingual inclination
The amount of buccal and lingual angulation increases or decreases the more distally the tooth is located in the arch?
increases
What is the curve of spee?
-the curve produced by a line connecting the cusp tip of the maxillary canine and buccal cusp tips of the premolars and molars
-it also occurs in the mandibular arch as a concavity and the maxillary's arch convexity
When viewing the posterior teeth from the anterior or posterior aspect, what line is formed?
How is it formed?
-Curve of Wilson
-formed by the lingual inclination of the mandibular post teeth and the buccal inclination of the maxillary posterior teeth
-it forms a convexity on the maxillary arch and has a corresponding concavity on the mandibular arch
What is the compensating occlusal curvature / sphere of monson?
-the spherical plane on the max and mand resulting from the combination of the curve of spee and the curve of wilson
-compared to a mortar and pestle
If max and mand casts are intercuspated into maximum intercuspation, what teeth overlap what teeth from a facial aspect?
the max ant teeth and B cusps slightly overlap the mand teeth
If max and mand casts are intercuspated into maximum intercuspation, what teeth overlap what teeth from a lingual aspect?
mand ling cusps slightly overlap the max ling cusps
The amount of vertical overlap increases or decreases as the tooth is located more distally in the arch?
decreases
Do the facio-occlusal and linguo-occlusal line angles in both the max and mand quadrants form a fairly straight continuous imaginary line along the posterior teeth?
yes
Does the central developmental grooves of the post teeth in both the max and mand quadrants form a fairly straight continuous imaginary line from ant to post?
yes
What are the facial and lingual boundaries of the occlusal table in post teeth?
facio-occlusal and linguo-occlusal lines
Are the occlusal tables of the molars slightly wider than the occlusal tables of the premolars even though the molar teeth are much wider faciolingually?
yes
Where is the additional bulk placed on the max molars?
on the lingual aspect of the tooth
Where is the additional bulk placed on the mand molars?
on the buccal aspect of the tooth
What is a line angle?
the line formed by the junction of two surfaces
What are vertical line angles?
line angles formed on the vertical sides of the tooth, formed by the junction of F,L,M,D surfaces
Viewing the post teeth from the occlusal, are the facial line angles of the premolars fairly distint or rounded?
fairly distinct
Viewing the post teeth from the occlusal, are the facial line angles of the molars fairly distint or rounded?
rounded
Viewing the post teeth from the occlusal, are the lingual line angles of the premolars fairly distint or rounded?
rounded
Viewing the post teeth from the occlusal, are the lingual line angles of the molars fairly distint or rounded?
rounded
Viewing the premolar teeth from the facial, what is the shape of the facial line angles?
the portion in the occlusal one-third is very distinct and angular, while the portion in the gingival one-third is quite round
In which teeth is it easiest to see the converging of the vertical line angles as they move more cervically?
premolars and anterior teeth
What are the mesial and distal terminations of the occlusal surfaces in posterior teeth?
marginal ridges
Is it very important that adjacent marginal ridges be the same height?
yes
The crest of the distal marginal ridge of a tooth should be the same height as what?
the mesial marginal ridge of the next tooth distal to it
Do two adjacent teeth contact at the crest of the marginal ridges?
Is there a small embrasure occlusal to the proximal contact?
-No
-yes
What forms the occlusal embrasure of two proximal post teeth?
the curved sides of the marginal ridges
Where do the marginal ridges slope into from the crest of the ridge?
into the respective mesial or distal triangular fossa
On the max first premolar buccal view, what is the crown outline?
trapezoidal
On the max first premolar buccal view, what does the mesial cusp arm of the buccal cusp look like?
fairly straight and longer than the distal cusp arm
On the max first premolar buccal view, what does the distal cusp arm of the buccal cusp look like?
shorter than the mesial cusp arm and more curved
On the max first premolar buccal view, what does the mesial outline look like?
concave from the CEJ to the mesial contact area, this is a fairly broad convexity
On the max first premolar buccal view, where is the mesial contact area?
is just cervical to the junction of the occlusal and middle thirds (contact is in the middle third)
On the max first premolar buccal view, what does the distal outline look like?
it is straighter from the CEJ to the distal contact area than the mesial outline, although still slighlty concave
On the max first premolar buccal view, where is the distal contact area?
it is located in the middle third as is the mesial contact area
On the max first premolar buccal view, in what direction is the buccal cusp tip pointed?
it is pointed and located slightly distal to the center of the buccal surface
On the max first premolar buccal view, is there a prominent buccal ridge on the buccal surface?
yes
On the max first premolar buccal view, where are the mesiobuccal and distobuccal line angles very distinct?
in the occlusal third of the buccal surface
On the max first premolar buccal view, where are the vertical developmental depressions seen?
-in the occlusal one-third of the buccal surface
**the mesial depression is the more concave depression
On the max first premolar lingual view, is the lingual portion of the crown more narrow or wide mesiodistally than the buccal portion?
more narrow
On the max first premolar lingual view, what direction is the lingual cusp tip pointed?
it is pointed and located mesial to the buccal cusp tip so that the distal cusp arm is longer than the mesial cusp arm
What is the crown outline shape of the mesial veiw of the maxillary first premolar?
trapezoidal, with the short parallel side of the trapezoid at the occlusal aspect.
On the maxillary first premolar mesial view, where is the buccal height of contour?
cervical third
On the maxillary first premolar mesial view, where is the lingual height of contour?
usuallly near the center of the middle one-third
On the maxillary first premolar mesial view, how much shorter is the lingual cusp tip than the buccal cusp tip?
1mm
On the maxillary first premolar mesial view, are the cusp tips located within the confines of the root surfaces, or do they extend beyond the root surfaces?
the cusp tips are located within the confines of the root surfaces
On the maxillary first premolar, how many have 2 roots and how many have one root?
half and half
On the maxillary first premolar, are the roots buccal/lingual or mesial/distal?
buccal/lingual
On the maxillary first premolar mesial view,what does the mesial developmental depression look like?
It is a marked concavity just cervical to the contact area and centered on the mesial surface of the crown. This concavity extends onto the mesial root surface
On the maxillary first premolar mesial view, tell about the groove that crosses the mesial marginal ridge.
is a well defined developmental groove that crosses the mesial marginal ridge just lingual to the mesial contact area and ends just cervical to the crest of the marginal ridge
On the maxillary first premolar when the root is bifurcated,is there a long trunk? Why?
-yes
-when the root is bifurcated, it is only bifurcated for about one-half its total length
On the maxillary first premolar distal view, is there a developmental depression of the distal surface of the crown?
no
On the maxillary first premolar occlusal view, what is the shape of the occlusal outline?
hexagonal
Is the crown wider in the buccal third or the lingual third?
buccal third
On the maxillary first premolar occlusal view, what features are prominent?
-buccal ridge
-buccal developmental depressions
-mesiobuccal and distobuccal line angles are very distinct in the occlusal third
On the maxillary first premolar occlusal view,the mesiobuccal cusp arm meets the mesial marginal ridge at nearly a ________angle.
right
On the maxillary first premolar occlusal view, the distobuccal cusp arm meets the distal marginal ridge at an _________ angle.
acute
Is the mesiolingual cusp arm shorter or longer than the distolingual cusp arm.
shorter
What divides the occlusal table into buccal and lingual halves?
the central developmental groove
The two grooves that extend from the mesial and distal pits toward the mesiobuccal and distobuccal line andgles are called what?
mesiobuccal and distobuccal developmental grooves respectively
Is the buccal triangular ridge distinct?
Is the lingual triangular ridge distinct?
-yes
-no
In the buccal view of the maxillary second premolar, is it more or less symmetrical compared to the maxillary first premolar?
more
In the buccal view of the maxillary second premolar, are the mesiobuccal and distobuccal line angles more or less prominant compared to the maxillary first premolar?
less
In the buccal view of the maxillary second premolar,is there a buccal developmental depression present?
no
In the buccal view of the maxillary second premolar, is the mesial cusp arm of the buccal cusp shorter or longer than the distal cusp arm?
shorter
In the buccal view of the maxillary second premolar, where are the mesial and distal contact areas?
in the middle thirds
In the mesial view of the maxillary second premolar, are the buccal and lingual cusps more nearly the same height compared to the maxillary first premolar?
yes
In the mesial view of the maxillary second premolar, is there a mesial marginal groove crossing the mesial marginal ridge?
no
In the mesial view of the maxillary second premolar, does the mesial surface have a marked concavity?
no
In the mesial view of the maxillary second premolar,are the buccal and lingual cusp tips slightly farther apart compared to the maxillary first premolar?
-yes
In the mesial view of the maxillary second premolar,where is the buccal height of contour?
Where is the lingual height of contour?
-cervical third
-middle third
In the occlusal view of the maxillary second premolar, what is the occlcusal outline shape?
What shape is the maxillary first premolar occlusal outline shape?
-ovoid
-hexagonal
In the occlusal view of the maxillary second premolar, are the mesiobuccal and distobuccal line angles slightly more or less rounded than those of the first premolar.
more rounded
In the occlusal view of the maxillary second premolar,is there a greater or less lingual convergence than the first premolar?
less lingual convergence
In the occlusal view of the maxillary second premolar, the occlusal surface have numerous supplemental grooves giving it a what type of appearance?
wrinkled
In the buccal view of the mandibular first premolar, what is the crown outline seen from the buccal side?
"roughly" trapezoidal
In the buccal view of the mandibular first premolar,what do the mesial and distal outlines look like?
they are similar except that the distal outline is slightly more concave cervical to the contact area
In the buccal view of the mandibular first premolar, where are the mesial and distal contact areas?
in the middle thirds
In the buccal view of the mandibular first premolar, what is the size, shape and position of the buccal cusp tip?
-large
-pointed
-mesial to the tooth's midline
***there is ofeen a slight concavity in the distal cusp arm
In the buccal view of the mandibular first premolar, tell about the middle buccal lobe
it is a prominent developed lobe, termed the buccal ridge, that extends from the cusp tip down the buccal surface of the tooth
In the lingual view of the mandibular first premolar, is most of the occlusal surface visible from this view? Why?
-yes
-because the occlusal surface slopes dramatically toward the lingual
In the lingual view of the mandibular first premolar, in the lingual portions of the mesial and distal surfaces what is between the CEJ and the contact areas?
concavities
In the lingual view of the mandibular first premolar, what is in alignment with the buccal triangular ridge on the occlusal surface?
a very small lingual cusp
In the lingual view of the mandibular first premolar, what does the root look like?
the root is very narrow on the lingual side and tapers evenly to a pointed apex
In the mesial view of the mandibular first premolar, what os the shape of the crown out line?
rhomboidal shape
In the mesial view of the mandibular first premolar, what is the tip of the buccal cusp centered over?
What is the tip of the lingual cusp in line with?
-the root
-the lingual border of the root
In the mesial view of the mandibular first premolar, is the buccal outline very convex from the CEJ to the buccal cusp tip?
-yes
In the mesial view of the mandibular first premolar, where is the buccal outine height of contour?
in the cirvical third
In the mesial view of the mandibular first premolar, what does the mesial surface look like in general?
smooth, flat, often with deep developmental grooves
In the mesial view of the mandibular first premolar, where is the lingual height of contour?
in the middle third
In the distal view of the mandibular first premolar, where is the distal marginal ridge located in relation to the mesial marginal ridge?
the distal marginal ridge is located more occlusally and is more horizontal than the mesial marginal ridge
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar, what does the occlusal outline look like?
the occlusal outline is usually diamond-shaped, but some may be more circular
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar, what do the mesiobuccal and distobuccal line angles look like?
the line angles are prominent but rounded
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar, does the crown converge sharply to the center of the lingual surface from the mesial and distal contact areas?
yes
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar, are the marginal ridges well developed?
yes
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar, can the majority of the buccal surface be seen? Why?
-yes
-due to the lingual tilt of the crown
***but very little of the lingual surface may be seen
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar, are there mesial and distal fossae on the occlusal surface?
yes
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar, what does the distal fossa look like?
What does the mesial fossa look like?
-the distal fossa is larger and has the more classic form of a fossa
-the mesial fossa is linear and extends lingually to become the mesiolingual developmental groove
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first premolar,is there a prominent transverse ridge and what is it composed of?
-yes
-the buccal triangular ridge and the lingual triangular ridge
In the buccal view of the mandibular second premolar, what do the mesial and distal contact areas look like?
they are relatively broad and located in the middle third
what are the two types of mandibular second premolars?
one type has two lingual cusps and the other has only one lingual cusp
In the lingual view of the two-cusp type mandibular second premolar,the single large lingual cusp is mesial to what?
the buccal cusp tip, allowing the buccal cusp tip to be observed
In the lingual view of the two-cusp type mandibular second premolar,is there a lingual developmental groove?
What is present?
-no
-a developmental depression where the lingual cusp's distal cusp arm joins the distal marginal ridge
In the lingual view of the three-cusp type mandibular second premolar,what are the two cusps on the lingual called?
the mesiolingual and distolingual cusp
In the lingual view of the three-cusp type mandibular second premolar,is the mesiolingual cusp larger and longer or is the distolingual larger and longer?
mesiolingual cusp is larger and longer
In the lingual view of the three-cusp type mandibular second premolar, there is a groove separating the two cusps that extends to where?
it extends from the occlusal surface onto the lingual surface
In the mesial view of the mandibular second premolar,is the crown and root wider buccolingually or narrower than those of the first premolar?
wider
In the mesial view of the mandibular second premolar, where is the buccal cusp tip located compared to the mandibular first premolar?
the buccal cusp tip is located more to the buccal and shorter than in the first premolar
In the mesial view of the mandibular second premolar, the marginal ridge is at _________ angles to the long axis of the tooth.
right
In the mesial view of the mandibular second premolar, where is the buccal height of contour?
Where lingual height of contour?
-cervical third
-middle third
In the occlusal view of the two cusp type mandibular second premolar, what is the occlusal outline shape?
rounded
In the occlusal view of the three cusp type mandibular second premolar, what is the occlusal outline shape?
-square
In the occlusal view of the two cusp type mandibular second premolar,what does the central developmental groove look like?
is most often a U or H shape, but may be straight
In the occlusal view of the two cusp type mandibular second premolar,what do the mesiolingual and distolingual line angles look like?
they are more rounded, and there is one well developed lingual cusp tip mesial to the midline
In the occlusal view of the three cusp type mandibular second premolar,which cusps are what size?
-the buccal cusp is the largest
-the mesiolingual is the next largest
-the distolingual is the smallest
In the occlusal view of the three cusp type mandibular second premolar,does each cusp have a triangular ridge and what separates the cusps?
-yes
-developmental grooves
In the occlusal view of the three cusp type mandibular second premolar,what do the grooves look like collectively?
What makes up that look?
-Y
-the mesial and distal portions of the central developmental groove and the lingual developmental groove form the Y
-the central pit is at their intersection
The maxillary first molar buccal view, what is the crown shape outline?
trapezoidal
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, what does the mesial outline look like?
the mesial outline is fairly straight from the CEJ to the curvature of contact area
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, where is the mesial contact?
in the middle third of the anatomical crown just cervical to the junction with the occlusal third
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, what shape is the distal outline?
convex
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, where is the distal contact?
in the middle of the middle third
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, how many buccal cusps are there and what do they look like?
-there are two buccal cusps
-the mesiobuccal cusp is broader and higher than the distobuccal cusp
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, what separates the two buccal cusps?
the buccal groove
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, can you see all three roots from this view? What do the roots look like?
-yes
-the lingual root is the lingest and the two curved buccal roots are about the same lenght
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar,how long is the root trunk?
4mm long
In the buccal view of the maxillary first molar, are the roots about twice as long as the crown?
yes
In the lingual view of the maxillary first molar, is there a lingual depression and what does it look like?
-yes
-the lingual depression starts on the cervical third of the crown and progresses down the lingual root
In the lingual view of the maxillary first molar, tell about the mesiolingual cusp.
the mesiolingual cusp is the longest and its mesiodistal width is about three-fifths of the lingual surface
In the lingual view of the maxillary first molar,tell about the cusp of carabelli
-is a fifth cusp on the lingual surface
of the mesiolingual cusp about 2mm cervical to the cusp ridges of the mesiolingual cusp
In the mesial view of the maxillary first molar, what does the buccal outline look like?
the buccal outline is fairly straight with its height of contour in the cervical third
In the mesial view of the maxillary first molar, what does the longual outline look like?
the lingual outline is very curved from its height of contour in the middle third
In the mesial view of the maxillary first molar,tell about the mesial contact area.
the mesial contact area is buccal to the buccolingual center of the crown, and there is a slight concavity apical to the contact area that extends slightly onto the root trunk
In the mesial view of the maxillary first molar, which root is the longest?
the lingual root is the longest and diverges lingually from the crown
In the mesial view of the maxillary first molar,tell about the mesiobuccal root.
the mesiobuccal root is broad buccolingually and hides the distal root from this view
In the distal view of the maxillary first molar, is the distal one-half of the crown narrower buccolingually than the mesial half? What does this allow?
-yes
-this allows some of the mesial half of the tooth to be visible
In the distal view of the maxillary first molar, are all three roots visible and which cusp is the smallest?
-yes
-the distobuccal root is smaller than the other two
In the occlusal view of the maxillary first molar, what is the crown outline shape?
rhomboid
In the occlusal view of the maxillary first molar, is the crown wider buccolingually than mesiodistally?
-yes
In the occlusal view of the maxillary first molar,where is the mesial contact area?
it is buccal to the buccolingual center of the crown
In the occlusal view of the maxillary first molar, is the mesial one-half of the crown wider buccolingually than the distal one-half?
yes
In the occlusal view of the maxillary first molar, does this tooth have a faciolingual taper?
-no
-the crown is mesiodistally wider lingual to the contact areas than buccal to the contact area
In the occlusal view of the maxillary first molar, what are the sizes in succession of the cusps?
-the mesiolingual cusp is the largest
-mesiobuccal cusp is next
-distobuccal cusp is next
-disto lingual cusp is next
-the fifth cusp is the smallest
In the occlusal view of the maxillary first molar, what is formed by the cusp arms of the three major cusps, the mesial marginal ridge and the oblique ridge?
-a triangle
**this is characteristic of all maxillary molars
In the buccal view of the maxillary second molar, is the crown shorter and narrower than that of the maxillary first molar?
yes
In the buccal view of the maxillary second molar, are the roots closer together and inclined more to the distal than in the first molar?
yes
In the buccal view of the maxillary second molar, where are the mesial and distal contact areas?
in the middle third
In the lingual view of the maxillary second molar, is the distolingual cusp smaller than in the first molar?
yes
In maxillary second molar, is there a fith cusp?(cusp of carabelli)
no
In the mesial view of the maxillary second molar, the buccolingual diameter about the same as that of the first molar but what is different?
the crown is shorter
In the mesial view of the maxillary second molar, do the roots have a great buccolingual spread as in the first molar?
no
In the mesial view of the maxillary second molar, where is the buccal height of contour?
Where is the lingual height of contour?
-cervical third
-middle third
In the occlusal view of the maxillary second molar, what is the outline of the crown?
more distinctly rhomboid-shaped than that of the first molar
In the occlusal view of the maxillary second molar, is the buccal half larger than the lingual half?
Is the mesial half larger than the distal half?
-yes
-yes
In the buccal view of the mandibular first molar, what is the crown outline shape?
roughly trapezoidal
In the buccal view of the mandibular first molar, where are the mesial and distal contacts?
in the middle third
In the buccal view of the mandibular first molar, what are the names of the two developmental grooves?
the mesiobuccal and distobuccal developmental grooves
In the buccal view of the mandibular first molar, what does the root portion look like?
it has a mesial root, distal root, and approximately a 3 millimeter root trunk
In the buccal view of the mandibular first molar, What does the mesial root look like?
What does the distal root look like?
-the mesial root is curved and angles distally
-the distal root is relatively straight
In the lingual view of the mandibular first molar, what does the mesial outline look like?
the mesial outline is convex from the CEJ to the broad contact area
In the lingual view of the mandibular first molar,what separates the mesiolingual and distolingual cusps and are they about the same size?
-the lingual developmental groove
-yes
In the mesial view of the mandibular first molar, What is the shape of the crown outline?
rhomboidal, which is characteristic of mandibular posterior teeth
In the mesial view of the mandibular first molar, what does the buccal outline look like?
Where is the buccal height of contour?
-the buccal outline is convex
-in the cervical third
In the mesial view of the mandibular first molar, what does the lingual outline look like?
Where is the lingual height of contour
-the lingual outline is fairly straight from the CEJ to the height of contour then fairly rounded to the cusp tips
-middle third
In the mesial view of the mandibular first molar, does the occlusal table appear to be displaced lingually?
yes
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first molar, what is the crown outline shape?
pentagonal
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first molar, what is the succession of size of the cusps?
-mesiobuccal cusp is the largest cusp
-followed by the two lingual cusps
-the distobuccal cusp
-the distal cusp is the smallest
In the occlusal view of the mandibular first molar, is the crown wider mesiodistally than buccolinguaally?
yes
***this is in reverse in comparison to the maxillary molars
In the buccal view of the mandibular second molar, what separates the mesiobuccal and distobuccal cusps?
the buccal developmental groove
In the buccal view of the mandibular second molar, what do the roots look like in comparison to those of the mandibular first molar?
the roots are shorter and more parallel, but angle more acutely to the distal than those of the mandibular first molar
In the buccal view of the mandibular second molar, where are the mesial and distal contact areas?
in the middle third
In the mesial view of the mandibular second molar, where is the buccal height of contour?
Where is the lingual height of contour?
-in the cervical third
-in the middle third
In the occlusal view of the mandibular second molar, what shape is the crown outline?
is a roughly rectangular outline that converges slightly to the lingual
In the occlusal view of the mandibular second molar, how many cusps are present?
4
In the occlusal view of the mandibular second molar, is the distobuccal cusp as large or larger than the mesiobuccal cusp?
yes
In the occlusal view of the mandibular second molar, the developmental grooves divide the crown into what?
four roughly equal parts
In the occlusal view of the mandibular second molar, where is the distal contact area centered?
buccolingually