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19 Cards in this Set

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Favorable climactic conditions
Long summer with warm sunshine
dry, sunny autumn
Winter no colder that -20*C (-4*F)
Major climactic vineyard dangers
Frost, hail, strong winds
Millerandage
physiological disorder caused by rain or cold temps during flowering. Some grapes will contain no seeds and will only partially mature
Persistant rain at harvest effects
diluted wine or rot
Coulure
Physiological disorder caused by too much sun, sap goes to leaves and shoots depriving the embryo grapes
Excessive heat at harvest effect
reduces acid levels in grape juice and causes fermentation problems, mitigated by night harvest
Two most important factors influencing the vine
Climate and Weather
climate
determined by geographical location of the vineyard, series of long term weather patterns, combination of temperature, precipitation, air movement, average sun/cloud cover over a long period of time
Macro-climate
Maritime, Mediterranean, Continental- Effects Large area or region
Microclimate
effects smaller area or sub region, created by surrounding natural features
Meso climate
effects smaller area or sub region, created by surrounding natural features
Benefits of frost in the winter
Hardens wood and kills harboring pests
Rainfall needed
27"/ growing season
Sunshine needed
1500-1600 hours 1300 need to be between bud break and pick
Degree days
measure of usable heat. Days above 50* F, Vineyards generally need 1800* F in a growing season
Wind effects on vineyards
patterns present climactic variations, need to be accommodated in places like Rhone (with the mistral and marin of the north and south, repectivly)
Ideal average growing temps for white grapes
67* F
Ideal average growing temp for red grapes
70*
diurnal ranges
difference between day and night temps