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52 Cards in this Set

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Mortality.. what is it?
What does it have to do with the demographic transition?
Dying of people inside of a population
-It fluctuates due to changes in society/ means of subsistance.
Demographic transition
Lowers the number of population which is bad for the economy of the country and avoid high mortality rates gdp per capita must increase and more development.
HDI- Human Development Index
Rates the development of a country and how developed it is in relationship to the rest of the world.
Life Expectancy
The expected year to live to by people attaining a certain age.
What is a life table?
A demographic tool used to see tracing the accumulative effect of a specified series of age, sex, specific death rates, over a life cycle for a hypothetical cohort or age group.
Average life expectancy
Death/ population (m, midyear) x n (constant)
Proximate cause of death:
the actual cause of death, or event
Non-proximate cause of death
the smaller details that can contribute to the final cause of death
Epidemilogical Transition
When a population of a country moves away from epidemics by increasing their development
Pestilance and Famine
ex. Europe during the Middle Ages
with life expectancy between 20 - 40 years old
1. a disease that could cause a panademic
2. a bad harvest can result in a higher demand thus causing higher prices. The poor become poorer and then receive second rate food which can be danger or lethal. Poor subsistance causes higher morbidity and mortality rates. If epidemic is occuring it then begins to expand and spead. The spread of an epidemic causes mortalitiy to go way up through out the entire country.
Age of Receding pandemics
-life expectancy: 30-50 years old
The curve has less irregular spikes on the epidemilogical graph. The start of controling conditions that prokokes the emergence of other diseases
Age of Degenerative / or human made diseases
ex: asthma
Epidemics have decreased or have been controled.
Stability in more developed regions and life expectancy reaches almost 70 years old.
Black Death:
Where? when? how?
Italy. France, England
1347
Killed between 1/3 to 2/3 of the European population
Came from south western Asia- Trade, war, and other contacts between Europe and Asia caused the diseases to spread.
- Rats carried flees to spread the Black plague across Europe. For example, an infected flea (host) infects a human whom another flea bites and becomes infected, and so on. Once the mutated plague became airborne, the plague spread even more rapidly.
Development and Mortality Decline
1.) Economic development and rising income: Reduction in frequency an extent periodic crisis such as famines and epidemics. improvements in general living conditions. Food supplu and people's diet improved- agricultural revolution and improved methods of storing food
2. Surplus made it possible to transfer food to locations of need
3.) Better hygene
4.) Better living conditions: Brick houses, ventilations, chimneys, windows
5.) Instituional sanitary reforms and public health reforms
Social Reforms that continue mortality decline
Reducing child labor, shorter working days, work places improved, housing legislation, which set minimal standards and social security schemes started providing such benefits: old age pensions, health insurance, medical care, unemployment insurance, payments to the workers
Advances in Medicine that continued mortality decline
Immunization against disease was a major factor, small pox vaccination, anticeptic surgery became more common, and in 1930's came great stride of chemotheropy and improvement of use of drugs to heal of stop diseases. Antibiotics, right after WWII, and in the 1940's the development of affective insecticides which helped eliminate typhus and malaria. Social developments/ medical advances aided in the economic and demographic developments.
Infant Mortality Rates
-Infant deaths/births in a year x 1000
Frequency with which live-born children die before first birthday, death of 0-1 years old.
Fetal mortality
Death during childbirth
Neo-natal mortality
Death within first month (28 days)
Post-Neonatal Mortality
Death of infant within the first year of life o-1 year of age.
Infant Mortality Rates continued:
Reason for high infant mortality is the lack of medicine or facilities and poor public conditions
-IMR's are a good indicator of the development and infrastructure of a country.
-The decrease of IMR's means the increasement of life expectancy.
Sex difference in Mortality
A slight shift between the females and males. More than 50% males are born yet at the end more women survive.
Morbidity
1.) malnutrition
2.)enviormental hazards
3.)genetic disease
The state of illness and disability in a poplation, specifically the indicence and/or prevalence of a disease or disability in a population.
Morbidity in the Epidemiological transition
-look to graph
move away from an age of disease based on the data from skeletal remains, institutional records, diaries and personal accounts, records of physians and clinics and newspaper and public health records.
Malnutrition
-4/10 children in Asia are underweight and their growth is stunted (not by genetics)
Eating without getting suffient nutrients. Comes from the lack of available food for a population
-can cause more sickness and lower immunity and even depression
Enviormental Factors
ex: Tuberculosis and inadequate sanitation and unclean water.
Contagon: something in the enviorment that is polluted.
-Can be caused by overcrowding and urbanization
Surveillance Systems
ex 1: WHO, World Health Organization
ex 2: FLUNET, responsible for the flu and the preventative measure to avoid an outbreak
ex 3: RABNET
Centers that watch for any diseases and report and contain diseases. Responible to report to the population and watch for any changes then containing the disease from creating an epidemic.
World Health Oragnization
142 world wide offices
CDC
Center for Disease Control, they publish weekly "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report."
Incidence Rate
Number of new case/ Population at risk
The Number of persons contracting a disease as a proportion of the population at risk for a specified unit of time.
- this rate is useful for spotting an outbreak of a disease but not for the prevlance or spreading
Prevalence Rate
Totaly number of cases/ Total population
Number of all cases/total population x 100
Age and sex patterns with Morbidity
In less developed regions morbidity has more of an affect of women and children because of unequal distribution and poor conditions (working/living). Emancipation of women increases the overall health of population because healthy women go on to have healthy children. Childbaring is rough on the female body and if the woman is suffering from malnutrition her chances of survival is less likely. In more developed region the affects are opposite and men and the elderly are at a higher risk of morbidity thus mortality.
Epidemological Transition (age and sex)
Incidence and prevalence of morbidity have generally declined among women and children and then have generally increased among men and older ages.
Years of Lost Life
How many more years persons might have lived if they had not died from a particular illness or cause.
YLL Graph explination:
sum of e(base x) for all deaths from a cause
It can be seen on this table how many years people might have remained living if they had not died from a particular illness or cause. When people died at age X, they fail to live out the average remaining lifetime expectancy for other people of that same age.
Fertility
The childbearing performance of individuals, couples or groups as indicated by the frequency with which birth occurs in a population
-the ability to produce offspring; power of reproduction: the amazing fertility of rabbits.
fecundidty
The biological capacity of a man, a woman, or a couple to produce a live birth.
-the ability to have children based on age of women being the potential after the first menstrual cycle until menapause
CFR- Crude Fertility Rate
The number of births/ the total populatio- its inaccuracy is based on the total population which includedes men, young girls, old women, and the interfile
GFR- General Fertility Rate
B/P(15-49) x 1,000
B= total births for the year
P= the women aged fifteen through foury-nine in the year
TFR- Total Fertility Rate
Average number of children that would be born alive to a woman (or a group women) during her lifetime if she were to pass through all of her childbaring years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year
-sum of age-specific fertility rates for all women in the childbaring ages.
(like the GFR in calculation, but divided into age cohorts.
Natural increase
Births - deaths
Western and Eastern Europe's Fertility
Eastern Europe, experienced both the Malthusian and the Neo-Malthusian simultaneously tending to push total fertility down in the 1900s.
-In contrast in Western Europe, they first experienced the decline in marriages then later the decline in fertility amongst married couples.
-Western: Neo-Malthusian had two important features: 1. it was high by modern standards 2. it varied considerably around that high average, both among nations and locatlities within nations.
- Neo transition in the decline of fertility mainly occured because of the voluntary family size limitation.
-Fertility, originally begins to slowly taper downward then typically drops into a stepp dive and ends at levels of marital fertility les than half of the original.
-Western countries declined earlier and Eastern declined later
Natural Fertility
results when couples do not attempt to terminate childbearing before the end of their biological reproductive span.
Neo-Malthusian
The declining of childbearing of married couples. The practice of stopping or spacing births is also a factor of the decline in fertility.
-The desire for smaller families.
-
Malthusian Transition
The delay or the curtailment of marriage.
As European marriage declined so did the overall fertility rate.
Replacement Rate
Replacement fertility is the total fertility rate at which women would have only enough children to replace themselves and their partner. By definition, replacement is only considered to have occurred when the offspring reach 15 years of age. If all offspring survived to the age of 15 the replacement rate would be exactly 2, but in practice it is affected by childhood mortality.
Classic Demographic Transition Theory
Attributes fertility's decline to the changes in social life, associated with industrialization and urbanization
Modernization and Secularization Theory
Emphasizes the rise of individualism and self fullfillment that are associated with increasing affluency.
Wealth Flow
Child labor laws that have been enforced have made children no longer economically beneficial and have instead become economic burdens, so fertility drops because children are no longer able to make money.
NeoClassical Micro-economics
Milton Freeton and Gerry Becker
Regulatory microeconomics
Attempt to bring up birthrates- Migration regulations
-people don't leave, people don't come in (native population only)
How to encourage fertility?
1. Laws that encourage marriage
2. Taxes that encourage families
3. Tax breaks, more children less payments
4. Adjust the the minimum age for marriage
5. Positive re-inforcement: awards for having many children