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33 Cards in this Set

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The pentose phosphate pathway is used to make
DNA, RNA, and other cofactors needing ribose

- also used to make NADPH

Needed for reductive synthesis and for prevention of damaging effects of oxygen free radicals
The pentose phosphate pathway:

Need NADPH? which pathway?
Use non-oxidative pathway
The pentose phosphate pathway:

Need Ribulose 5-phosphate but not NADPH? Which pathway?
Use non-oxidative pathway
The pentose phosphate pathway:

Tissues that carry out extensive fatty acid, cholesterol, or steroid hormone synthesis require?
- NADPH

Liver, adipose tissue, lactating mammary gland
The pentose phosphate pathway:

These tissue will contain a lot of the enzymes (in high concentrations) involved in making NADPH
Liver, adipose tissue, lactating mammary gland
The pentose phosphate pathway:
NADPH and Free Radicals

Free radicals are bad for
cell membranes
The pentose phosphate pathway:
NADPH and Free Radicals

Glutathione = ?

Does what?
Glutathione = GSH

Free radical cleanup
The pentose phosphate pathway:

(1): Oxidative Pathway
glucose 6 - phosphate
The pentose phosphate pathway:

(2): Oxidative Pathway
6 -phosphoglucono-delta-lactone
The pentose phosphate pathway:

(3): Oxidative Pathway
6-phospho-gluconate
The pentose phosphate pathway:

(4): Oxidative Pathway
D-ribulose
The pentose phosphate pathway:

(5): Oxidative Pathway
Nucleotides, coenzymes
DNA, RNA
What steps in The pentose phosphate Oxidative Pathway bring in NADP+ and kick out NADPH
- Steps 1 & 2
What step in The pentose phosphate Oxidative Pathway kick out CO2 while bringing in NADP+ and kicking out NADPH
- Step 2
In the The pentose phosphate Pathway ~ Non-oxidative phase does what?
- Recycles pentose phosphate (ribulose 5-phosphate) back to glucose 6-phosphate
The importance of the pentose phosphate Pathway ~ Non-oxidative phase?
- Generate glucose 6-phosphate

- No loss of NADPH
How many carbons are involved with Xylulose 5 phosphate in the pentose phosphate Pathway ~ Non-oxidative phase
2 Carbons
How many carbons are involved with Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate in the pentose phosphate Pathway ~ Non-oxidative phase
3 Carbons
What enzyme turns xylulose 5-phosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate?
Transketolase
What enzyme turns glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into erythrose 4-phosphate?
Transaldolase
What is the intermediate in Ribose 5-Phosphate Epimerase Reaction
2,3 cis-enediol
Transketolase (and TPP) does what?
Changes xylulose 5-phosphate & Ribose 5-Phosphate <~~~> glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate & Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate

-reversible
TPP is also
a cofactor for pyruvate decarboxylase (ethanol fermentation)
Transaldolase changes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate & Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate into
Erythrose 4-phosphate and Fructose 6 phosphate
Transaldolase is similar to
Aldolase (Glycolysis)
Lysine ~~> Schiff base
Lysine ~~> ???
Schiff base
Pentose Phosphate Pathway:

Transketolase (w/ TPP)transforms Erythrose 4-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate to
Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate & fructose 6-phosphate
What enzyme transforms
Pentose Phosphate Pathway:
Erythrose 4-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate to Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate & fructose 6-phosphate
Transketolase (w/ TPP)
PPP: Regulation

If NADPH is not utilized
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase will be inhibited

This is because NADP has been exhausted
If NADPH is not utilized
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase will be inhibited. Why?
This is because NADP has been exhausted
Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Diseases
- Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (cannot generate NADPH)

- Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Diseases

What is Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
- (cannot generate NADPH)
- Cannot overcome oxidative
stress (free radicals)
- Capable of malaria
resistance
Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Diseases

What is Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?
- Lowered transketolase
affinity for TPP

- Severe memory loss, mental
confusion, partial paralysis