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143 Cards in this Set

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_____________ are rapid movements of both eyes; these are both under reflex and voluntary control; the movements are quick and synchronized, and change the point of visual __________; an example of ___________ movements is the series of small jumps involved in scanning a line of text.
SACCADES are rapid movements of both eyes; these are both under reflex and voluntary control; the movements are quick and synchronized, and change the point of visual FIXATION; an example of SACCADIC movements is the series of small jumps involved in scanning a line of text.
The _________ plane divides the body or brain into left and right portions; the division follows the anterior-posterior plane.
SAGITTAL
___________ conduction is a property of neural conduction; in this an impulse jumps between two nodes of Ranvier; the result is speeded neural conduction.
SAlTATORY
__________ speech is a type of speech disorder involving cerebellar dysfunction; characterized by variable intonation that is associated with interruption between syllables; each syllable may be spoken with excessive or insufficient force (i.e., "_________ speech"). Speech is slow.
SCANNING speech is a type of speech disorder involving cerebellar dysfunction; characterized by variable intonation that is associated with interruption between syllables; each syllable may be spoken with excessive or insufficient force (i.e., "EXPLOSIVE speech"). Speech is slow.
Scanning speech is among the characteristic features of __________ dysarthria.
Scanning speech is among the characteristic features of ATAXIC dysarthria.
_____________ refers to the presence of abnormal cavities or divisions in the brain; these may develop either prenatally or in early infancy.
SCHIZOENCEPHALY refers to the presence of abnormal cavities or divisions in the brain; these may develop either prenatally or in early infancy.
A __________ is an illusion involving flashes of light, sparks, or glitterings; these occur in the ___________ visual fields. Often associated with _______ or ________.
A SCINTILLATION is an illusion involving flashes of light, sparks, or glitterings; these occur in the PERIPHERAL visual fields. Often associated with SEIZURES or MIGRAINE.
_________ refers to scarring that is assoc. w/ glial overgrowth or hyperplasia that can result from neural injury.
SCLEROSIS
This term is used interchangeably with sclerosis: __________.
GLIOSIS
A ________ is an area of blindness/poor vision that is within the visual field; it is surrounded by areas of gen. normal vision.
SCOTOMA
_________ _________ __________ refers to a two-step assessment approach that is meant to shorten necessary time; a _______ (easy item) is presented 1st; if passed, easy items are skipped, if not then testing proceeds with the sequential easy items (the _______).
SCREEN AND METRIC refers to a two-step assessment approach that is meant to shorten necessary time; a SCREEN (easy item) is presented 1st; if passed, easy items are skipped, if not then testing proceeds with the sequential easy items (the METRIC).
SDAT is an abbreviation for:
Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer type.
________ ________ ___________ refers to a condition in which the severity of a second mild head injury that is independent from the 1st has greater effects than the two insults would cumulatively suggest.
SECOND IMPACT SYNDROME
_________ ___________ is the second phase in a seizure beginning as a focal or partial seizure but progressing to a ___________ seizure. These don’t occur in all partial seizures. Pts. w/ complex partial epilepsy may have some seizures that generalize and others that do not.
SECONDARY GENERALIZATION is the second phase in a seizure beginning as a focal or partial seizure but progressing to a GENERALIZATION seizure. These don’t occur in all partial seizures. Pts. w/ complex partial epilepsy may have some seizures that generalize and others that do not.
______ refers to a process in reading; a string of words is broken down into graphemic __________; these are assigned phonology.
SEGMENTATION refers to a process in reading; a string of words is broken down into graphemic SEGMENTS these are assigned phonology.
A seizure may be understood as a discrete attack of excessive, uncontrolled hyper__________ cortical neural discharge. Roughly _______% of seizures don’t reflect an underlying epilepsy syndrome; rather they reflect __________ brain disorders.
A seizure may be understood as a discrete attack of excessive, uncontrolled HYPERSYNCHRONOUS cortical neural discharge. Roughly 50% of seizures don’t reflect an underlying epilepsy syndrome; rather they reflect ACUTE brain disorders.
The two broad categorizations of seizures are __________ and __________ seizures. What is the difference between the two?
In GENERALIZED seizures, the disturbance affects both hemispheres simultaneously; in PARTIAL seizures it affects only one.
Describe the age range that is typical for onset of absence seizures. What is the hallmark feature of an absence seizure?
Absence seizures usually have initial onset between 4 AND 10 YEARS. The hallmark feature is a SUDDEN BLANK STARE & CESSATION OF ACTIVITY.
In an absence seizure, is there post-ictal awareness of the event? Post-ictal confusion?
NO to both.
Absence seizures frequently include automatisms, eye blinking, and subtle ________ movement of the _________. They are typically outgrown; they typically [are / are not] associated with cognitive impairment. May be mistaken for a/an __________________ disorder.
Absence seizures frequently include automatisms, eye blinking, and subtle CLONIC movement of the LIMBS. They are typically outgrown; they typically ARE NOT associated with cognitive impairment. May be mistaken for AN ATTENTIONAL disorder.
Absence seizures were formerly called:
PETIT MAL SEIZURES
This term indicates the presence of impaired consciousness or responsiveness during a seizure:
“COMPLEX”
This term indicates the lack of impaired consciousness or responsiveness during a seizure:
“SIMPLE”
This type of seizure is associated with impaired consciousness or responsiveness, with seizure activity restricted to one hemisphere:
COMPLEX PARTIAL SEIZURE
Partial seizures begin locally. If secondary generalization occurs, they may evolve into generalized ________________ seizures.
Partial seizures begin locally. If secondary generalization occurs, they may evolve into generalized TONIC-CLONIC seizures.
The two most common foci of complex partial seizures are in these regions:
Most common: medial temporal lobe; second most common: frontal lobe.
Complex partial seizures typically are named according to this criterion:
AREA OF ONSET (e.g., temporal lobe seizure, etc.)
Febrile seizures are [partial vs. generalized] seizures. They peak in children b/w 6 mos. – 5 y.o. While a single uncomplicated febrile seizure is of little concern, pts. w/ complex partial szs of temporal lobe origin and a hx of febrile szs have heightened vulnerability to atrophy and sclerosis of this area:
Febrile seizures are GENERALIZED seizures. They peak in children b/w 6 mos. – 5 y.o. While a single uncomplicated febrile seizure is of little concern, pts. w/ complex partial szs of temporal lobe origin and a hx of febrile szs have heightened vulnerability to atrophy and sclerosis of this area: the HIPPOCAMPUS.
This type of seizure has laughter as the central ictal phenomenon. They are associated with [complex vs. simple] [generalized vs. partial] seizures, and have also been associated w/ hippocampal ___________.
GELASTIC SEIZURES have laughter as the central ictal phenomenon. They are associated with complex partial seizures, and have also been associated w/ hippocampal HAMARTOMAS (abnormal nodules resembling neoplasms but w/o abnormal growth rate).
In __________ generalized seizures, onset is in both hemispheres, whereas in _________ generalized seizures, onset begins focally and spreads to both hemispheres.
In PRIMARY generalized seizures, onset is in both hemispheres, whereas in SECONDARY generalized seizures, onset begins focally and spreads to both hemispheres.
In a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, “tonic” refers to [ ], while “clonic” refers to [ ].
In a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, “tonic” refers to GENERALIZED TONIC MUSCLE CONTRACTION, while “clonic” refers to CLONIC JERKS.
In a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, tonic-clonic behavior is preceded by:
In a generalized tonic-clonic seizure tonic-clonic behavior is preceded by SUDDEN LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
Generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures were formerly called:
Generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures were formerly called GRAND MAL SEIZURES.
These two symptoms are common postictally in GTC seizures:
These two symptoms are common postictally in GTC seizures: LETHARGY AND CONFUSION.
Myoclonic seizures are [generalized or partial] seizures characterized by myoclonic jerks; myoclonic jerks usually affect the ______ and the _________; they are sudden shock-like contractions.
Myoclonic seizures are GENERALIZED seizures characterized by myoclonic jerks; myoclonic jerks usually affect the ARMS AND LEGS.
Examples of simple partial seizures [seizures in which ________ is preserved] include focal _____ or focal _____ seizures.
Examples of simple partial seizures [seizures in which CONSCIOUSNESS is preserved] include focal MOTOR or focal SENSORY seizures.
Uncinate seizures—szs originating in the uncus—are associated with:
Uncinate seizures—szs originating in the uncus—are associated with: HALLUCINATIONS OF TASTE AND SMELLS, USU. UNPLEASANT SMELLS.
The term “semantic” refers to:
The term “semantic” refers to WORD MEANINGS and RULES FOR THE USE OF WORDS.
In Alzheimer’s dementia, _________ fluency may be more impaired than _______ fluency. ________ fluency in NP assessment refers to the production of multiple words belonging to the same category within a limited time.
In Alzheimer’s dementia, SEMANTIC fluency may be more impaired than LETTER fluency. SEMANTIC fluency in NP assessment refers to the production of multiple words belonging to the same category within a limited time.
__________ or _________ plaques are composed of amyloid and surrounded by degenerated dendrites; found in high concentrations in pts. w/ AD; amount of these plaques are the most consistent neuropathologic indicator of dementia severity in AD.
SENILE or NEURITIC PLAQUES
The septal area refers to cortex and septal nuclei. These nuclei are located on the ______ side of the _________ lobe, extending to the ________ __________ beneath the ______ and _______ of the corpus callosum.
The septal area refers to cortex and septal nuclei. These nuclei are located on the MEDIAL side of the FRONTAL lobe, extending to the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM beneath the GENU and ROSTRUM of the corpus callosum.
The term septum refers to a ______ or ________ that divides two _____________.
The term septum refers to a MEMBRANE or WALL that divides two CHAMBERS.
The septum pellucidum is a membrane that divides these two chambers:
The septum pellucidum is a membrane that divides the lateral ventricles’ frontal horns.
In a free-recall task, the tendency to have best recall of the first items presented (the ________ effect) and the last items presented (the ________ effect) are collectively referred to as the ________ _________ effect.
In a free-recall task, the tendency to have best recall of the first items presented (the PRIMACY effect) and the last items presented (the RECENCY effect) are collectively referred to as the SERIAL POSITION effect.
Serotonin, sometimes referred to in shorthand as ________, is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator that is particularly concentrated in the _______ _________ of the pons and _________ _________.
Serotonin, sometimes referred to in shorthand as 5-HT is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator that is particularly concentrated in the RAPHE NUCLEI of the PONS and UPPER BRAINSTEM.
Serotonin is especially involved in the brain’s _________ and __________ states.
Serotonin is especially involved in the brain’s AFFECTIVE and AROUSAL states.
Projections involving serotonin utilization project throughout the CNS, but are particularly concentrated in the following four regions:
Projections involving serotonin utilization project throughout the CNS, but are particularly concentrated in the following four regions:
Imbalance in serotonin levels is found in _______ disorders, as well as in ______ and hyper___________ states.
Imbalance in serotonin levels is found in MOOD disorders, as well as in SCHIZOPHRENIA and HYPERAGGRESSIVE states.
“________ _______ injury” refers to the primary mechanism in which diffuse axonal injury occurs following a traumatic brain injury.
“SHEAR STRAIN INJURY” refers to the primary mechanism in which diffuse axonal injury occurs following a traumatic brain injury.
“SHEAR STRAIN INJURY” refers to the primary mechanism in which diffuse axonal injury occurs following a traumatic brain injury.
In shear strain injury, AXONS are damaged by ROTATIONAL forces that result in shearing between tissues that have different DENSITY levels.
Shear strain injuries occur particularly at the junctures between these two things:
Shear strain injuries occur particularly at the junctures between WHITE FIBER TRACTS and GRAY MATTER.
A shunt used in brain disease treatment is inserted into a ________ ___________, diverting excessive _______ to the _________ area.
A shunt used in brain disease treatment is inserted into a CEREBRAL VENTRICLE, diverting excessive CSF to the ABDOMINAL area.
The most commonly used shunt in the context of brain disease is the ____________ shunt, or ____ shunt for short. It diverts CSF from the _______ _______ of the ________ _________, delivering it to the abdominal __________.
The most commonly used shunt in the context of brain disease is the VENTRICULOPERITONEAL shunt, or VP shunt for short. It diverts CSF from the FRONTAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, delivering it to the abdominal PERITONEUM.
Sickle cell disease is a genetic hemoglobin disorder that may be associated with cognitive ____________, seizures, and __________.
Sickle cell disease is a genetic hemoglobin disorder that may be associated with cognitive DELAY, seizures, and SEIZURES.
While acute vascular incidents may be result from sickle cell disease, neurocognitive deficits may also result from _________ strokes; these are not radiologically evident. ________ strokes typically occur in ___________ areas of cerebral vasculature.
While acute vascular incidents may be result from sickle cell disease, neurocognitive deficits may also result from SILENT strokes; these are not radiologically evident. SILENT strokes typically occur in WATERSHED areas of cerebral vasculature.
SPECT is a form of ________ neuroimaging that uses radioisotopes to measure brain perfusion; it is sometimes used in localizing __________ prior to __________ ___________. In this type of imaging, a hypermetabolic stated is associated with the ______.
SPECT is a form of FUNCTIONAL neuroimaging that uses radioisotopes to measure brain perfusion; it is sometimes used in localizing SEIZURES prior to EPILEPSY SURGERY. In this type of imaging, a hypermetabolic stated is associated with the ICTUS.
__________ refers to the degree to which a measurement has a symmetrical or asymmetrical distribution with reference to the mean.
SKEWNESS
Negatively skewed distributions show a larger number of scores at the _____ end of the distribution, while positively skewed ones do so at the ______ end.
Negatively skewed distributions show a larger number of scores at the HIGHER end of the distribution, while positively skewed ones do so at the LOWER end.
Sleep apnea may be associated with daytime _______, ___________ and impairments in ________ and __________.
Sleep apnea may be associated with daytime SLEEPINESS, IRRITABILITY, and impairments in ATTENTION and CONCENTRATION.
With the snout reflect, the pt. ______ the _________ when the upper ________ area is tapped. Contrary to common belief, it is more common with ________ brain disease than with _____ frontal lobe lesions.
With the snout reflect, the pt. PURSES the LIPS when the upper LIP area is tapped. Contrary to common belief, it is more common with DIFFUSE brain disease than with FOCAL frontal lobe lesions.
While they occur more frequently in clinical populations, _____ neurologic signs (nonspecific signs that suggest but do not indicate impairment) occur often in the normal population. These are mild/subtle findings on a neurologic exam.
SOFT
In somatoform disorders, physical symptoms cannot be fully explained ________ly. In contrast to malingering, no ______ _______ is identifiable. There does not appear to be a psychological need to assume a __________ ___________, as is the case in _________ __________.
In somatoform disorders, physical symptoms cannot be fully explained MEDICALLY. In contrast to malingering, no SECONDARY GAIN is identifiable. There does not appear to be a psychological need to assume a PATIENT ROLE, as is the case in FACTITIOUS DISORDERS.
_____________ refers to the bodily sensation of temperature, touch, pan, pressure, vibration, and position and movement.
SOMESTHESIA refers to the bodily sensation of temperature, touch, pan, pressure, vibration, and position and movement.
_______ _________ refers to a phenomenon in which an individual has enhanced recall of repeated items when the repetitions are separated by other events.
SPACING EFFECT
What does “span of apprehension” describe?
The amount of auditory info that can be held in one’s memory and repeated back verbatim.
Spastic ataxia included both ________ and ____________.
Spastic ataxia included both SPATISICTY and UNSTEADINESS.
Spasticity refers to heightened muscle tone assoc. w/ hyperactive _________ reflexes; these generally come with _______ motor neuron impairment.
Spasticity refers to heightened muscle tone assoc. w/ hyperactive TENDON reflexes; these generally come with UPPER motor neuron impairment.
Speech: Lesions disrupting language production are generally in the ___________ region. Speech may also be disrupted by lesions to peripheral muscles/nerves involved in _________ and __________; disorders of this type are generally referred to under the category of ________.
Speech: Lesions disrupting language production are generally in the PERISYLVIAN region. Speech may also be disrupted by lesions to peripheral muscles/nerves involved in VOCALIZATION and ARTICULATION; disorders of this type are generally referred to under the category of DYSARTHRIA.
Speech ____________ refer to nonlinguistic rules of verbal communication. These include, e.g., eye contact, staying on topic, use of body language, and initiating and ending speech.
PRAGMATICS
Spina bifida is a developmental defect; it is characterized by defective closure of this:
Spina bifida is a developmental defect; it is characterized by defective closure of the bony spinal cord encasement. Therefore, the cord and meninges may protrude through the spinal vertebrae.
The spinothalamic system [ascends or descends?], carrying information about ______, ________, and _________.
The spinothalamic system ascends, carrying information about touch, temperature and pain.
_______ ________ ________ refers to a sign of psychogenic sensory loss. With this phenomenon, sensory perception stops at the body’s midline. This suggests psychogenic etiology as sensory fibers generally spread across the midline. In addition to testing with a mildly painful stimulus (e.g. pinprick), a vibrational stimulus may also reveal this sign, as vibration is easily perceived contralaterally.
SPLITTING THE MIDLINE
Define “standard deviation”:
For guidance, see the next card pair in this group.
The standard deviation is a statistical measure of the _______ or _______ of scores with respect to the mean.
The standard deviation is a statistical measure of the VARIABILITY or DISPERSION of scores with respect to the mean.
The standard deviation is calculated by this means:
The standard deviation is calculated by calculating the square root of the variance.
Define “standard error of measurement”:
For guidance, see the next card pair in this group.
The standard error of measurement reflects the __________ of obtained test scores relative to the test’s “true scores”. Small SEM’s indicate that a test is __________.
The standard error of measurement reflects the VARIABILITY of obtained test scores relative to the test’s “true scores”. Small SEM’s indicate that a test is RELIABLE.
What is the standard error of the mean?
For guidance, see the next card pairs in this group.
The standard of the mean measures how much a _______ mean varies from sample to sample from an entire _________ true mean.
The standard of the mean measures how much a sample mean varies from sample to sample from an entire population’s true mean.
The standard error of the mean is the ________ __________ of the sampling distribution of the sample mean.
The standard error of the mean is the STANDARD DEVIATION of the sampling distribution of the sample mean.
With larger n’s, the standard error of the mean does this:
With larger n’s, the standard error of the mean GETS SMALLER
How is the standard error of the mean is estimated?
The standard error of the mean is estimated by taking the sample’s SD and dividing it by the sample size’s square root.
What is a standard score?
For guidance, see the next card pairs in this group.
A standard score is one that has been transformed to reflect its ______ from the _____ in _______ units.
A standard score is one that has been transformed to reflect its distance from the mean in SD units.
Various scales may be used in standard scores, e.g. T- and z-scores. The fact that standard scores have been used does not necessarily indicate that a score distribution is ________. However, __________ distributed scores usually form the basis on which standard scores are generated.
Various scales may be used in standard scores, e.g. T- and z-scores. The fact that standard scores have been used does not necessarily indicate that a score distribution is NORMAL. However, NORMALLY distributed scores usually form the basis on which standard scores are generated.
What is standardization?
For guidance, see the next card pairs in this group.
Standardization refers to the process through which data collected from a group intended to represent the ___________ is gathered and analyzed.
POPULATION
When adequate standardization is achieved, a(n) __________’s performance can be compared to that of others with similar background/characteristics, whether in the _______ pop. or a specific ____________ pop.
When adequate standardization is achieved, an individual’s performance can be compared to that of others with similar background/characteristics, whether in the general pop. or a specific clinical pop.
Rather than being completely __________, a standardization sample may be ________, for instance according to age or education. This helps to ensure representative sampling of key subject characteristics.
Rather than being completely RANDOMIZED, a standardization sample may be STRATIFIED, for instance according to age or education. This helps to ensure representative sampling of key subject characteristics.
What is status epilepticus?
For guidance, see the next card pairs in this group.
Status epilepticus refers to a seizure that lasts more than __________, or a seizure series w/o conscious periods in between them.
Status epilepticus refers to a seizure that lasts more than 30 minutes, or a seizure series w/o conscious periods in between them.
What types of seizures are associated with status epilepticus?
All types may be assoc. w/ status epilepticus.
Pts. w/ generalized status epilepticus usually have resulting sclerosis of this:
the hippocampus
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus is marked by _________ ___________.
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus is marked by DECREASED ALERTNESS.
Recognition of objects by touch is called _____________.
Recognition of objects by touch is called STEREOGNOSIS.
_________ __________ is a minimally invasive technique of lesioning poorly accessible AVMs and brain tumors, using a gamma knife.
STEREOTAXIC RADIOSURGERY is a minimally invasive technique of lesioning poorly accessible AVMs and brain tumors, using a gamma knife.
What is stereotypy?
Stereotypy is the persistent repetition of movements, acts or words that have no meaning.
What is stimulus-boundedness?
This phenomenon refers to difficulty in disengaging / shifting attention focus from one stimulus to another. Pts. seem “stuck” or physically drawn to stimuli. Freq. attributed to dysfunction in frontal circuits, but may also result in diffuse brain disease.
____________ behavior is somewhat similar to stimulus-boundedness. In this phenomenon, a pt. seems pulled to a stimulus; for instance, s/he may copy a design either on top of or inappropriately close to the original.
Closing-in behavior
_________ ___________ is a memory deficit that results from impairment in consolidation.
STORAGE DEFICIT is a memory deficit that results from impairment in consolidation.
Stratifying a sample allows for sufficient representation of specific _____________; this is done by ________ing aspects of the sample composition in a number of different groups, i.e. ________.
Stratifying a sample allows for sufficient representation of specific CHARACTERISTICS; this is done by RESTRICTING aspects of the sample composition in a two or more different groups, i.e. STRATA. An example would be having age-based groups that ensure adequate representation of each age range.
The striate cortex is the primary sensory ________ cortex. It corresponds with Brodmann's area ____. Another name for the striate cortex is the ________ ________.
The striate cortex is the primary sensory VISUAL cortex. It corresponds with Brodmann's area 17. Another name for the striate cortex is the CALCARINE CORTEX.
The striatum is composed of the ________ ________ and the _________. It is also known as the _________ __________.
The striatum is composed of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the PUTAMEN. It is also known as the CORPUS STRIATUM.
Strokes are defined as episodes of sudden-onset neurologic dysfunction that results from cerebrovascular events. The most common type is _______, followed by ______ strokes.
Strokes are defined as episodes of sudden-onset neurologic dysfunction that results from cerebrovascular events. The most common type is ISCHEMIC followed by HEMORRHAGIC strokes.
Strokes that are ischemic in etiology include ________ and ______ types.
Strokes that are ischemic in etiology include
THOMBOTIC and EMBOLIC types.
What are thrombotic strokes?
Thrombotic strokes are those due to occlusion of blood vessels by solidified blood.
What are embolic strokes?
Embolic strokes are those due to occlusion of blood vessels due a thrombus or other form of material.
In hemorrhagic strokes, blood leaks from a blood vessel that has been weakened due to an _________ or a ________ ___________.
In hemorrhagic strokes, blood leaks from a blood vessel that has been weakened due to an ANEURYSM or a VASCULAR MALFORMATION.
A stroke in the carotid distribution often continues for as many as _________ hours, while vertebrobasilar strokes may continue for ___ to ___ days.
A stroke in the carotid distribution often continues for as many as 18 hours, while vertebrobasilar strokes may continue for 2 to 3 days.
A stupor is defined as a type of ________ state; a pt. in a stupor [can or cannot] be partially aroused; a pt. in a stupor [can or cannot] attain a fully wakeful state.
A stupor is defined as a type of UNCONSCIOUS state; a pt. in a stupor CAN be partially aroused; a pt. in a stupor CANNOT attain a fully wakeful state.
In a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), blood leaks into the subarachnoid space due to ______ or a _________ _________.
In a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), blood leaks into the subarachnoid space due to TRAUMA or a VASCULAR MALFORMATION.
Death is not infrequent with subarachnoid hemorrhage because:
Death is not infrequent with subarachnoid hemorrhage because as little as 100 ml. of blood can increase intracranial volume to the point that coma results.
A common cause of subcortical lesions is _________ infarction.
A common cause of subcortical lesions is LACUNAR infarction (small infarctions resulting from occlusion).
Lacunar infarctions in subcortical regions are often a result of _________ and ________.
Lacunar infarctions in subcortical regions are often a result of HYPERTENSION and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS.
Lacunar infarctions typically result from occlusion of small arteries that branch from these three cranial arteries:
Lacunar infarctions typically result from occlusion of small arteries that branch from these three cranial arteries: MCA, PCA, and BASILAR ARTERY.
The subiculum is a structure that is located in the _________ region of the _____ lobe. It is found between the _________ gyrus and ________ horn.
The subiculum is a structure that is located in the MEDIAL region of the TEMPORAL lobe. It is found between the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL gyrus and AMMON'S horn.
Most neuropsychological research uses __________ variables. These variables are classifications that pertain to an aspect of life experiences. _________ variables are difficult to manipulate. They are used in _______ and ________ designs that involve ________.
Most neuropsychological research uses SUBJECT variables. These variables are classifications that pertain to an aspect of life experiences. SUBJECT variables are difficult to manipulate. They are used in EXPERIMENTAL and CORRELATIONAL designs that involve COVARIATES.
The substantia nigra is a nucleus in the _______; it is often considered to be part of the _________ __________; it is associated with this type of function: ________.
The substantia nigra is a nucleus in the MIDBRAIN; it is often considered to be part of the BASAL GANGLIA; it is associated with MOTOR FUNCTION.
Substantia nigra contains much __________; major cell loss in this region is seen in the following condition:
Substantia nigra contains much DOPAMINE; major cell loss in this region is seen in PARKINSON'S DISEASE.
Define sulcus:
A sulcus is a fissure or groove that defines the brain's gyri.
This term refers to the heightened confusion that occurs in late afternoon/early evening) in pts. with dementia or in an acute confusional state.
Sundowning
This sign may occur when there is increased intracranial pressure, and involves the inability to look up.
Sunset gaze sign. The term refers to the fact that the pupils appear to be "setting" in the lower lid of the eyes.
The supplementary motor cortex is __________ to the primary motor cortex. It is involved in _________ organization of movements, e.g. performing multiple movements __________. It is also important in voluntary movement _________.
The supplementary motor cortex is ANTERIOR to the primary motor cortex. It is involved in TEMPORAL organization of movements, e.g. performing multiple movements SEQUENTIALLY. It is also important in voluntary movement INITIATION.
The supplementary motor area is located at Brodmann's area ______ on the _______ surface of the cortex.
The supplementary motor area is located at Brodmann's area 6 on the MEDIAL surface of the cortex.
_________ employment refers to a model in which disabled individuals are coached and given specialized training & supervision in a group. One competitive position may be performed by two subcompetitive employees, or by one worker with a disability and one coach.
SUPPORTED EMPLOYMENT
If something is located above the dural covering of the cerebellum, it may be referred to with this term:
SUPRATENTORIAL; above the tentorium which is the cerebellar dural covering. Contrast with INFRATENTORIAL. Informally, when something is described as supratentorial, it may be suggesting that something is psychogenic or "in one's head".
A suprasella cyst is also known as a(n):
craniopharyngioma
The sylvian fissue is one of the brain's major _______; it begins at the brain's base, on the anterior ________ substance's ________ aspect. It extends laterally between the ______ and _____ lobes.
The sylvian fissue is one of the brain's major SULCI; it begins at the brain's base, on the anterior PERFORATED substance's LATERAL aspect. It extends laterally between the TEMPORAL and PARIETAL lobes.
Another name for the sylvian fissure is the ______ ______.
LATERAL FISSURE
Methods of symptom validity testing include calculating if _______-choice test items are incorrectly answered more often than would be the case by chance; examination of _______ and ________ memory effects; examination of ________ effects; and comparison of _______ and _______ span.
Methods of symptom validity testing include calculating if FORCED-CHOICE test items are incorrectly answered more often than would be the case by chance; examination of PRIMACY and RECENCY memory effects; examination of PRIMING effects; and comparison of DIGIT and WORD span.
A synapse is the contact point between neural __________, or between a neuron and a __________ (such as a gland or muscle).
A synapse is the contact point between neural PROCESSES, or between a neuron and a RECEPTOR(such as a gland or muscle).
The electron ______ _______ elicits the release of neurotransmitters into the _________ __________; this influence's the likelihood that a _____-synaptic neuron will fire.
The ELECTRON ACTION POTENTIAL elicits the release of neurotransmitters into the SYNAPTIC CLEFT; this influence's the likelihood that a POST-synaptic neuron will fire.
The term __________ refers to fainting/ a temporary LOC. It may be due to varied factors, including reduced _________ output, temporary ______ ____ reduction to the brain, or psychological factors such as _______.
The term SYNCOPE refers to fainting/ a temporary LOC. It may be due to varied factors, including reduced CARDIAC output, temporary BLOOD FLOW reduction to the brain, or psychological factors such as ANXIETY.
A syndrome is a collection of ______ and ______ that frequently co-_______, and that are suggestive of a common _______, _________ and treatment.
A syndrome is a collection of SIGNS and SYMPTOMS that frequently CO-OCCUR, and that are suggestive of a common ETIOLOGY, PROGNOSIS and treatment. Note, however, that while they SUGGEST these things, they do not reflect them with (relative)certainty as would a DISEASE.
The term _______ refers to involuntary ______ group movement during performance of ______ movements.
The term SYNKINESIA refers to involuntary MUSCLE group movement during performance of VOLUNTARY movements.
Synkinesia is also referred to as:
Synkinesia is also referred to as MOTOR OVERFLOW.
Synkinesia may be seen in the contraction of distal muscles in ________, or in diffuse brain damage resulting in movement of the contralateral ________ during ____-motor movement.
Synkinesia may be seen in the contraction of distal muscles in ATHETOSIS, or in diffuse brain damage resulting in movement of the contralateral HAND during FINE-MOTOR movement.
What is syntax?
For guidance, see the next card.
Syntax refers to language ______ rules that govern the assembly of words into sentences. It represents the various relationships between words, such as word order, that help to convey information in a ________ manner.
Syntax refers to language STRUCTURE rules that govern the assembly of words into sentences. It represents the various relationships between words, such as word order, that help to impart information in a MEANINGFUL manner.
Lupus is the commonly used term this disease _________ _______ ________. The abbreviation for this illness is ____.
Lupus is the commonly used term this disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. The abbreviation for this illness is SLE.
Lupus/SLE is a generalized _______ __________ disease.
Lupus/SLE is a generalized COLLAGEN VASCULAR disease.
Lupus is characterized by skin _________, neurological manifestations, f_______ and l__________, among other signs.
Lupus is characterized by skin ERUPTIONS, neurological manifestations, FEVER, and LYMPHADENOPATHY, among other signs.
The 3 ___'s are the main neurologic features sometimes seen in lupus: ______, _____, and ________.
The "3 S's" are the main neurologic features sometimes seen in lupus: STROKES, SEIZURES, and PSYCHOSIS.