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35 Cards in this Set

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Active Transport
The pumping of substances across cell membranes. From a low concentration to a high concentration. This uses energy from respiration and ATP.
Osmosis
The net movement of water molecules frokm a solution with a lower concentration of solute (high conc. of water) to a solution with a higher concentration of solute (low conc. of water) across a partially permeable membrane.
Exocytosis
The release of substances (usually proteins or polysaccharides) from the cell as vesicles (small membrane-bound sacs) which fuse with the cell surface membrane, releasing their contents.
Endocytosis
The absorption of substances (usually proteins or polysaccharides) into a cell by the creation of a vesicle. Part of the cell membrane engulfs the substance to be transported.
Diffusion across membranes
The net movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are at a higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration, until equilibrium is reached.
Facilitated Diffusion across membranes
Channel proteins are used to aid large hydrophilic molecules and ions that cannot diffuse ordinarily. Each channel protein has a specific shape to allow only one type of molecule or ion.
Hydrophilic
Water-attracting
Hydrophobic
Water-repelling
Peripheral Proteins
Proteins that are loosely attached on the outside of a membrane
Integral Proteins
Proteins that are fully embedded inside a membrane phospholipid bilayer.
Glycoproteins
A molecule consisting of a protein and a carbohydrate chain. It is used for cell recognition, to make cells form together to form tissues.
Receptor Proteins
Allow the cell to react to other cells and hormones
Primary structure of a protein
A chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds - Polypeptides
Secondary structure of a protein
The polypeptide chain starts to curl up due to interactions between the different side groups of the amino acids. Contains alpha-helix (coil) and beta-pleated sheets (zig-zags). Both are held together with hydrogen bonds.
Tertiary structure of a protein
The three-dimensional shape caused after all sections of the polypeptide chain have curled or twisted.
Peptide bond
The bond between two amino acids
Ester bond
The bond between the glycerol and the fatty acid tail in a phospholipid. (Phosphoester bond between phosphate group and glycerol)
Glycosidic bond
The bond between the monosaccharides to form carbohydrates
How to calculate the actual width of a magnified object
actual measurement= measured size / magnification
Validity
When something supports the idea, it is said to be valid
Reliability
When results from a repeated experiment are similar they are said to be reliable
Precision
When a repeated experiment gives a similar result every time
Accuracy
How close to the true value a reading/measurement is.
Dependent Variable
The variable that relies on the result of the experiment
Independent Variable
The fixed variable that the experimenter may have cintrol over
Gene
A section of DNA that codes for a polypeptide
Allele
A different form of the same gene
Homologous
The chromosomes in each of pair of the 23 pairs in each cell.
Homozygous
Identical alleles (HH)
Heterozygous
Two different alleles (Hh)
Carrier
Someone with both a mutated gene and a normal gene, but the mutated gene is recessive.
Genotype
The two alleles that a person has (HH, Hh or hh)
Phenotype
The appearance of a characteristic in an organism (cystic fibrosis/ not cystic fibrosis)
Recessive
The allele that only affects the phenotype of the other homozygote. Written as a lower case letter.
Dominant
The allele that affects the phenotypes of one of the homozygotes and the heterozygote. Written as a capital letter