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89 Cards in this Set

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Ecchymosis
a blue-purple discoloration of the skin due to passage of blood from ruptured blood vessels into subcutaneous tissue
Echographia
A form of agraphia in which one cannot express his/her thoughts in writing, but can accurately copy written material or from dictation; pathological copying of words or phrases in written form
Echoic memory
Form of sensory memory for auditory information - limited duration (2-3 seconds), but large capacity
Echopraxia
Involuntary (pathological) imitation of the movements or gestures of another person.
Damage to what area of the brain may result in echopraxia?
frontal lobe
ECoG
abbreviation for electrocorticography or electrocorticogram; activity (brain waves) recorded directly from the cortical surface of the brain
Ecological validity
One type of external validity that pertains to how well a test (or the methods, materials, setting of a study) predicts behavior in real situations or everyday life
Ecphory
pertaining to episodic memory retrieval - interaction between retrieval cues and stored information that lead to reconstruction of information into memory (described by Tulving)
Electrocerebral Silence (ECS)
electrocerebral inactivity - associated with brain death
Edema
Tissue swelling and intracranial pressure increase that result from water accumulation in the brain
What is the difference between vasogenic edema and cytotoxic edema?
vasogenic edema- accumulation of water in the extracellular space

cytotoxic edema - diffusion of water into cells due to neural or glial membrane impairment
Effective visual field
portion of the visual field where recognition of letters is possible
Efferent
conduction of neural messages AWAY from the CNS (think E for Exit)
Elaboration
Pertains to memory processing - information that was initially encoded into memory is enriched through additional processing of the information
Electrical stimulation mapping
electrical current is applied directly to the brain in order to identify eloquent areas (i.e., sensory, motor, language).
ECT
Electroconvulsive Therapy - Treatment in which seizure is produced by passing electrical current through brain; commonly used to treat psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrnia)
How should ECT be administered to obtain the fewest cognitive side effects?
Unilateral ECT generally results in less cognitive impairment than bilateral ECT; Cognitive impairment is also less frequently observed when unilateral stimulation is applied to the nondominant hemisphere (although dominant hemisphere stimulation may be more therapeutic)
Electrodermal response (EDR)
a change in the electrical properties of the skin in response to physical or psychological stimuli (e.g., stress, anxiety); same as Galvanic skin response (GSR)
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Recording of brain waves using scalp or depth electrodes (commonly used to diagnose epilepsy, encephalitis or encephalopathies, dementia; also used to evaluate brain death and coma); recordings directly from the cortical surface during surgery are usually referred to as ECog (electrocorticogram)
Electrolyte imbalance
When electrolytes (e.g., sodium, potassium) become disturbed due to dehydration or dietary insufficiency. Can cause confusional state, particularly in elderly.
ELISA
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay - this is a test that is very sensitive at detecting antibodies in the blood or CSF; Often used to diagnose infection agents that are not easily cultured (e.g., lyme disease, AIDS)
Eloquent cortex
Ares of the brain that would result in significant functional impairment if they were surgically resected (e.g., language, motor, and sensory areas)
Embedded Figures Tests
This test includes a number of complex designs, each which contain a more simple geometric figure. Subject must locate the simple geometric figure and trace the shape of it
Embolism
blockage of a blood vessel that disrupts blood flow (may be due to thrombus fragment or other intra-arterial or cardiac material); has been thought to be most common cause of TIAs and cerebral infarction
What is the most common embolic source?
the heart
Where do emobli most frequently lodge?
bifurcations, branchings and curvatures in the blood vessels (e.g., bifurcations of common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and middle cerebral artery)
Embolization
Method used to close vessels feeding AVMs (e.g., metal pellets, thrombogenic coils, balloons, glues)
What are some common conditions that require embolization?
1) reduce size of AVM before resection; 2)to treat aneurysms and cavernous fistulas that cannot be resected; 3) to stop uncontrollable bleeding of an artery following head or neck injury
Emotional lability
Rapid and repetitive shifts in affect
What conditions may result in emotional lability?
common in mania and delirium; may also result from damage to the orbitofrontal regions
Empty speech
Speech is fluent, but lacking in content often because of significant word-finding difficulties; characteristic of anomic aphasia
Empyema
presence of pus in a body cavity (can be epidural or subdural)
Encapsulated
encased or enclosed
Encephalitis
brain inflammation that results from infection (usually viral)
What is the most common type of viral encephalitis and what areas of the brain are affected by it?
herpes simplex encephalitis -damages inferior surface of frontal and temporal lobes
Encephalocele
congenital skull defect that usually results in a protrusion of brain tissue through the defect
Encephalomalacia
softening of brain tissue, usually caused by vascular insufficiency, degenerative changes, or trauma
Encephalopathy
Diffuse brain imparment - often due to some systemic condition. Often accompanied by a confusional state
Encoding
Process by which a stimulus representation gets into memory
Encoding specificity principle
memory retrieval is a function of the overlap between the context of learning and that of the retrieval; when information available at encoding is present during retrieval, memory is facilitated
Endarterectomy
surgical excision of the inner lining (plaque) of an artery (often carotid artery) that is clogged with atherosclerotic buildup; this procedure decreases risk of ischemic stroke in patients with significant stenosis
Endorphins
compounds (peptide hormones) synthesized in the brain that bind to opiate receptors; they reduce the sensation of pain and affect emotions
Where are endorphins found within the brain?
endorphins are primarily in the pituitary; lesser amounts are also present in the hypothalamus and other regions of the brain involved in pain perception
Entorhinal cortex
anterior portion of the parahippocampal gyrus in the medial temporal lobe; relay area between hippocampus and association cortex; involved in odor processing and memory
Environmental dependency syndrome
syndrome marked by imitation and utilization behavior - patients are excessively responsive to stimuli in their environment
What area of the brain is usually damaged in environmental dependency syndrome?
this syndrome has been associated with bilateral orbitofrontal lesions
EOMI
"Extra-ocular movements intact" - includes up, down, medial and lateral movements of the eyes.
If a patient's extra-ocular movements are intact, what cranial nerves are functioning normally?
3rd - oculomotor
4th - trochlear
6th - abducens
Ependyma
epithelial membrane that lines the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain
Ependymoma
A CNS neoplasm made up of relatively undifferentiated ependymal cells (usually from central canal of spinal cord); most are benign and slow growing, although they can be malignant
Epicritic
pertains to sensory nerve fibers that enable the perception of slight differences in the intensity of stimuli, especially touch (light or localized touch) or temperature; also light pressure and sharp pain
Epidural hematoma
an extradural hematoma - blood accumulates between dura and calvaria (skull)
What is a common cause of epidural hematoma?
often results from skull fracture when meningeal artery is damaged by bony skull groove
Epigastric
upper middle region of the abdomen (above the stomach)
Epilepsy
brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures (usually defined as...at least 2 spontaneous, unprovoked seizures)
Epilepsy - Centrencephalic Epilepsy
historical term used to refer to the hypothesis that generalized epilepsy is triggered by a subcortical pacemaker
Epilepsy - Psychomotor Epilepsy
epilepsy with prominent ictal motor automatisms (e.g., lipsmacking) and seizures arising from temporal lobe region (now called complex partial epilepsy)
Epilepsy - Reflect Epilepsy
epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by specific stimuli in the enviroment (internal or external) (e.g., flashing lights)
Epilepsy - Rolandic Epilepsy
this type of epilepsy occurs in childhood; it is a benign focal motor epilepsy that is assocaited with central-temporal spikes on EEG
Epilepsy Surgery
neurosurgical intervention for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy (doesn't respond to anti-epileptic drugs); epileptogenic region is resected to eliminate seizures
Epinephrine
neurotransmitter associated with the sympathetic nervous system - released by adrenal gland
Episodic Dyscontrol Syndrome
involves intermittent explosive behavior in reaction to frustration; individual seems ot lose self-control and strike out in rage that is disproportionate to the stimulus (pts often diagnosed with DSM-IV - intermittent explosive disorder)
Where is the lesion likely to be found in neurologic patients who demonstrate dyscontrol episodes?
often lesions in ventromedial structures, including frontal cortex, hypothalamus, septal nuclei, and amygdala
Episodic Memory
context-specific memory that is typically autobiographical (a type of explicit memory)
Equipotentiality
posits that memory impairment depends on amount of tissue damaged rather than on localization of the lesion - proposed by Karl Lashley
Errorless Learning
all errors are prevented during training process - believed to be more efficient than trial and error learning in neurological populations (especially those with anterograde amnesia)
Errors of Action
problems with perception-action cycle (often includes sequencing deficits or misuse of objects)
Erythemia
Redness of the skin or mucous tissues caused by dilatation and congestion of the capillaries, often a sign of inflammation or infection
Essential Tremor
a common usually hereditary or familial disorder of movement; characterized by benign resting tremor of the hands, head or voice - typically exacerbated by anxiety and by activity; not symptomatic of Parkinson's disease
How is essential tremor typically treated
beta-blockers
Etat Lacunaire
mutliple small infarcts often associated with chronic high blood pressure
Evoked Potentials
an electrical response in the cerebral cortex as recorded following stimulation of a peripheral sense receptor
What are the two broad categories of evoked potentials?
1) Exogenous sensory potentials - modality-specific responses reflecting processing of sensory info in afferent pathways; 2) Endogenous potentials - not specific to a sensory modality and reflect task that subject is asked to perform (aka event-related potentials)
Auditory Evoked Potentials
recorded in response to auditory stimuli; range from brainstem auditory evoked respones (reflect integrity of brainstem auditory pathway and occur in first 10 milliseconds post-stimulation) to long-latency evoked potentials that are generated in neocortex and reflect processing speed
Motor Evoked Potentials
activity recorded in relation to motor response; includes activities before movement or shortly after movement
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
recorded in response to brief somatosensory stimulation (e.g., electric shock); used to assess integrity of sensory functioning
Visual Evoked Potentials
recorded in response to visual stimuli (e.g., strobe light); used to assess integrity of visual function; long-latency VEPs are generated in neocortex and reflect processing speed
Executive Function
cognitive abilities needed to accomplish comlex goal-directed behaviro and adaptation in response to environmental demands; includes planning, cognitive flexibility, direction of attentional resources; also involved in self-awareness and monitoring
Exner's Area
posited to be center for motor graphic images needed for successful writing; located in the poterior portion of the second frontal convolution; not supported by research
Exploratory Factor Analysis
a multivariate statistical method for characterizing the relationships between a set of observed variable in terms of their relation to a smaller set of common underlying variables referred to as factors.
Extensor
when this type of muscle is contracted, it causes the limb to extend or straighten (opposite of flexor)
External Validity
extent to which results from a measure can generalize beyond that measure
Extinction
two definitions: 1) failure to detect a stimulus contralateral to a lesion during bilateral simultaneous stimulation, but detection to affected side is intact with unilateral stimulation; 2) in classical conditioning, animal stops producing learned response when it is no longer reinforced
Motor Extinction
akinesia in contralateral limb increase when person simultaneously uses extremities ipsilateral to lesion
Sensory Extinction
Most often observed in tactile modality; often observed during resolution of hemispatial inattention with right cerebral injuries
Extinction Burst
increase in frequency of response following withdrawal of reinforcer
Extrapyramidal Motor System
functional unit of structures that are physiologically similar, including basal ganglia, subtahalmic nucleas, substantia nigra and their interconnections and connections with the thalaums
Extrapyramidal Syndrome (EPS)
includes akinesia, rigidity, temor akathisia, and buccolingual dyskinesia - often experienced as side effects of neuroleptic medications; different from tardive disorders in that movement abnormalities develop acutely rather than following long-term medication use
Extubation
removal of endotracheal or tracheostomy tube