Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/35

Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vitamin B1 deficiency is associated with _______-__________ _________ in ____________. B1 is also known as _________.
Vitamin B1 deficiency is often associated with WERNICKE KORSAKOFF-SYNDROME in ALCOHOLICS with a chronic hx. B1 is also known as THIAMINE.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is also known as:
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is also known as WERNICKE ENCEPHALOPATHY.
B12 deficiency may be associated with:
B12 deficiency may be associated with A CONFUSIONAL STATE that can resemble DEMENTIA. The condition is REVERSIBLE.
The Babinski reflex/sign involves ___________ or ________ of the big toe after the _________ of the foot is stimulated.
The Babinski reflex/sign involves EXTENSION or DORSIFLEXION of the big toe after the SOLE of the foot is stimulated. The other toes may fan out.
The Babinski sign is associated with a lesion in the __________ ___________ (__________ ________ __________).
The Babinski sign is associated with a lesion in the CORTICOSPINAL TRACT (UPPER MOTOR NEURONS).
Babinski reflexes are normal in __________. They are generally considered clinically relevant at this age:
Babinski reflexes are normal in INFANCY. They are generally considered clinically relevant at this age: 1+ YEARS.
Name the following technique: The last step of a desired activity is reinforced, followed by criterion training of each preceding step, conducted until an entire desired action has been learned.
Backward chaining.
In __________ syndrome, __________ of the visual field cannot be perceived in the ________, in spite of variable perception of its components.
In BALINT'S syndrome, COMPONENTS of the visual field cannot be perceived in the WHOLE, in spite of variable perception of its components.
In addition to not perceiving visual field components as a whole in Balint's syndrome, two other features are _______ ________/__________, and a disturbance in _____________ __________.
In addition to not perceiving visual field components as a whole in Balint's syndrome, two other features are OPTIC ATAXIA/APRAXIA and a disturbance in SPATIAL ATTENTION.
In Balint's syndrome, optic ataxia/apraxia refers to an impairment in using vision to ______, ______, or _______ an object. A disturbance in spatial attention refers to difficulty in seeing into the visual field's __________.
In Balint's syndrome, optic ataxia/apraxia refers to an impairment in using vision to READ, TOUCH, or GRAB an object. A disturbance in spatial attention refers to difficulty in seeing into the visual field's PERIPHERY.
___________ refers to violent intermitten flinging actions associated with proximal limb muscle contraction. _______ actions resemble chorea, are usually ___lateral, and are usually greater in the (arm/leg) than the (arm/leg).
BALLISMUS refers to violent intermitten flinging actions associated with proximal limb muscle contraction. BALLISMUS actions resemble chorea, are usually UNILATERAL (called HEMIBALLISMUS), and are usually greater in the ARM than the LEG.
Ballismus results from a lesion of the ____lateral __________ ______________. It usually resolves in the course of several days, & isn't assoc. w/ cog. impairment w/o presence of other lesions.
Ballismus results from a lesion of the CONTRALATERAL SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS.
The inability to estimate weight when objects are place in the affected hand is known as __________.
The inability to estimate weight when objects are place in the affected hand is known as BAROGNOSIS.
The ________ forebrain is located at the base of the frontal lobes. It provides much of the __________ innervation to the neocortex and the __________ temporal lobes.
The BASAL forebrain is located at the base of the frontal lobes. It provides much of the CHOLINERGIC innervation to the neocortex and the MEDIAL temporal lobes.
The basal forebrain includes the nucleus __________ of __________, the diagonal band of __________, and the _______ nuclei.
The basal forebrain includes the NUCLEUS BASALIS OF MEYNERT, the DIAGONAL BAND OF BROCA, and the SEPTAL NUCLEI.
The basal ganglia are major parts of the ___________ ________ system. Definitions vary, but the following five components are generally considered constituents of the basal ganglia:
The basal ganglia are major parts of the EXTRAPYRAMIDAL MOTOR SYSTEM. Definitions vary, but the following five components are generally considered constituents of the basal ganglia: THE CAUDATE NUCLEUS, THE PUTAMEN & GLOBUS PALLIDUS (REFERRED TO COLLECTIVELY AS THE LENTICULAR NUCLEUS), THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEI, AND THE SUBSTANTIA NIGRA.
The basal ganglia help regulate motor _______,___________ motor activity, and _______ motor behaviors.
The basal ganglia help regulate motor TONE, INVOLUNTARY motor activity, and OVERLEARNED motor behaviors (as opposed to novel ones that are regulated by the frontal cortex.
Disturbance of the basal ganglia may result in __________ movements (eg in Parkinson's, Huntington's, and ________'s disease).
Disturbance of the basal ganglia may result in INVOLUNTARY movements (eg in Parkinson's, Huntington's, and WILSON's disease).
Research suggests possible involvement of the basal ganglia in aspects of cognitive functioning, for example, _______ _________, and in limbic functioning via the ________ __________. The latter body is related to the amygdala and the hippocampus.
Research suggests possible involvement of the basal ganglia in PROCEDURAL LEARNING and in limbic functioning via the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. The latter body is related to the amygdala and the hippocampus.
________'s theorem is often employed in decision analysis, allowing calculation of the _______ probability of an event. For instance, given a test sign it can help calculate the probability of a disease.
BAYE'S theorem is often employed in decision analysis, allowing calculation of the POSTERIOR probability of an event. For instance, given a test sign it can help calculate the probability of a disease. The posterior probability of a random event or an uncertain proposition is the conditional probability it is assigned when the relevant evidence is taken into account.
Bell's palsy involves ________ paralysis from inflammation of the ____ cranial nerve. It may be associated with changes in _____ and with hyper_________. It is usually benign, and resolves within months.
Bell's palsy involves FACIAL paralysis from inflammation of the 7th cranial nerve. It may be associated with changes in TASTE and with HYPERACUSIS. It is usually benign, and resolves within months.
Benzodiazepines are classified as minor tranquilizers; they may be used to treat muscle ______, _________, and to calm pts. undergoing minor surgery.
Benzodiazepines are classified as minor tranquilizers; they may be used to treat muscle SPASMS, SEIZURES, and to calm pts. undergoing minor surgery.
The _________ ___________ method estimates premorbid level of functioning by identifying the highest test score or highest functioning level on everyday tasks. All other levels of current performance are compared to this. Problems: often ____estimates premorbid IQ, does not account for normal ________ among tests.
The BEST PERFORMANCE method estimates premorbid level of functioning by identifying the highest test score or highest functioning level on everyday tasks. All other levels of current performance are compared to this. Problems: often OVERESTIMATES premorbid IQ, does not account for normal VARIABILITY among tests.
Beta is the probability of making a _____ _______ error.
Beta is the probability of making a TYPE II error.
Beta-blockers block _________. They are commonly used to treat _______and _____ disease, and may also treat ______ _____ tremor.
Beta-blockers block EPINEPHRINE They are commonly used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART disease, and may also treat BENIGN ESSENTIAL tremor.
_________'s disease results from dymelination of the subcortical ___________ areas; it results from chronic uncontrolled hypertension; it is commonly associated with _________. Demyelination occurs primarily in the _________ and ________ lobes.
BINSWANGER'S disease results from dymelination of the subcortical PERIVENTRICULAR areas; it results from chronic uncontrolled hypertension; it is commonly associated with DEMENTIA. Demyelination occurs primarily in the TEMPORAL and OCCIPITAL lobes.
With bi_________ _____anopsia, there is loss of the outer halves of both visual fields. This is due to damage to the ______ _______ involving ______ crossing fibers from the ________ portion of the retina.
With BITEMPORTAL HEMIANOPSIA, there is loss of the outer halves of both visual fields. This is due to damage to the OPTIC CHIASM involving BOTH crossing fibers from the NASAL portion of the retina.
In ___________, one sees spasmodic blinking as well as intermittent involuntary eye closure. This is associated with other head & neck dystonic contractions.
In BLEPHAROSPASM one sees spasmodic blinking as well as intermittent involuntary eye closure. This is associated with other head & neck dystonic contractions.
________ is a visual disorder resulting from _______ visual cortex damage; pts. may be able to detect motion and discriminate among visual stimuli and yet insist that they can not see.
BLINDSIGHT is a visual disorder resulting from PRIMARY visual cortex damage; pts. may be able to detect motion and discriminate among visual stimuli and yet insist that they can not see.
__________ involves abnormal slowness in movement, & is associated with difficulty in movement _________. Slowness in speech, chewing and swallowing are often seen.
BRADYKINESIA involves abnormal slowness in movement, & is associated with difficulty in movement INITIATION.
Bradykinesia is commonly seen in ___________ disease.
Bradykinesia is commonly seen in PARKINSON'S disease.
____________ refers to abnormal slowness of thought. It is often associated with ________ cerebral impairment. It may also be seen in advanced age, Parkinson's disease, and _______ lobe injury.
BRADYPHRENIA refers to abnormal slowness of thought. It is often associated with DIFFUSE cerebral impairment. It may also be seen in advanced age, Parkinson's disease, and FRONTAL lobe injury.
Infarction limited to _______'s area does not in fact lead to an expressive aphasia; rather it leads to _______ with right ______ and arm weakness that resolves over several days. _________'s aphasia usually involves a much greater territory of the anterior/upper ______ ______ artery.
Infarction limited to Broca's area does not in fact lead to an expressive aphasia; rather it leads to MUTISM with right FACE and arm weakness that resolves over several days. BROCA's aphasia usually involves a much greater territory of the anterior/upper MIDDLE CEREBRAL artery (MCA).
A _______ palsy involves dysarthria, dysphagia, and unresponsive _____ reflex. These signs are due to injury to the b_______(i.e. ________) cranial nerves; these are cranial nerves number ____ to _____.
A BULBAR palsy involves dysarthria, dysphagia, and unresponsive GAG reflex. These signs are due to injury to the BULB (i.e. MEDULLARY) cranial nerves; these are cranial nerves number IX to XII.
Bulbar palsy in some ways resembles _______ palsy, though gag and jaw jerk reflexes are absent in ________ palsy. Common causes of bulbar palsy include the following: ______-______ syndrome, ALS, ______ artery stenosis, chronic m__________, tumors at the base of the _______, and ____________ gravis.
Bulbar palsy in some ways resembles PSEUDOBULBAR palsy, though gag and jaw jerk reflexes are absent in BULBAR palsy. Common causes of bulbar palsy include the following: GUILLAIN-BARRE syndrome, ALS, VERTEBRAL artery stenosis, chronic MENINGITIS, tumors at the base of the SKULL, and MYASTHENIA gravis.