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124 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In research an animal whose behavior is used to discover principles that may apply to human behavior
animal model
B.F. Skinner studied
simple behaviors under carefully controlled conditions
study of overt, observable behavior is
behaviorism
biopsychology is the study of
biological processes as they relate to behavior
a case study is the intense investigation of
the behavior of a single person
What kind of psychology is the study of human thinking, knowing, understanding, and information processing
cognitive
What kind of psychology uses community resources to promote mental health and treat or prevent mental health problem
community
what is a control group
in an experiment, subjects exposed to all conditions except the idependent variable
correlation versus causation
correlation is just the relationship between two objects and causation is the act of causing an effect
non experimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables
correlational study
counseling psychology is
the study of milder emotional and behavioral problems
critical thinking is the ability to
evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information
a method or practice of an empiric; pursuit of knowledge by observation and experiment
Empiricism
functionalism is a school of psychology concerned with
how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments
School of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts
Gestalt Psychology
an approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals
humanism
Causation
act of causing some effect
Tendancy for a majority of scores to fall in the midrange of possible values
central tendancy
satistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation
coefficient of correlation
correlation is
the existance of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables
statistics that summarize or "boil down" numbers so they become more meaningful and easier to communicate
descriptive
Table that divides an entire range of scores into a series of classes and then records the number of scores that fall into each class
frequency distribution
Frequency __________ is a graph of frequency distributioin in which the number of scores falling in each class is represented by points on a line
polygon
___________ techniques for presenting numbers pictorially, often by plotting them on a graph
graphical
a graph of a frequency distribution in which the number of falling scores in each class is represented by vertical bars
histogram
________ statistics use mathematical tools for decision making, gerneralizing, from small samples, and fo drawing conclusions
inferential
what is the measure of central tendency calculated by adding a group of scores and then dividing by the total number of scores
mean
the median is
a kind of central tendency found by arranging scores from highest to lowest and selecting the score that falls in the middle
what kind of central tendency is found by identifying the most frequently occuring score in a group of scores
mode
increases in one measure resulting in the decrease in another measure is called a
negative relationship
a bell shaped distribution wiht a large number of scores in the middle, tapering to very few extremely high and low scores
normal curve
A distribution which describes many situations where observations are distributed symmetrically around the mean . 68% of all values under the curve lie within one standard deviation of the mean and 95% lie within two standard deviations.
normal distribution
portion of the total amount of variation in a group of scores
percent of variance
________________ mathematical relationship in which the correlation between two measures is -1.00
perfect negative realtionship
________________ mathematical realtionship in which the correlation between two measures in +1.00
perfect positive realtionship
population is
an entire group of animals, people, or objects belonging to a particular category
___________ matematical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by increases in another measure
posititve relationship
choosing a sample so that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
random selection
difference between highest and lowest scores in a group of scores
range
a representative sample is
small randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population
smaller subpart of a population
sample
__________ diagram is a graph that plots the intersection of paired measures- points at which paired x & y values cross
scatter
standard deviation is
an index of how much a typical score differs from the mean of a group of scores
the degree to which an event (such as the results of an experiment) is unlikely to have occured by chance alone
statistical significance
variablility is
power possessed by living organisms, both animal and vegetable, of adapting themselves to modifications or changes in their environment, thus possiblily giving rise to ultimate variation of function
the absence of a (linear) mathematical realtionship between two measures
zero correlation
z-score
number that tells how many standard deviations above or below the mean a score is
surgical removal of tissue
ablation
acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter released by neurons to activate
muscles
a nerve impluse, rapid change in electrical charge across the cell membrane
action potential
endocrine glands whose hormones arouse the body regulate salt balance, adjust the body to stress and affect sexual functioning
adrenal glands
hormone produced by the adrenal glands that tends, in general, to arouse the body
adrenaline
agnosia is the disturbance in the ability to perceive
words, objects, or pictures
all-or-nothing event
classifying objects or events as absolutely right or wrong, good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable, and so forth
one of the rounded prominences of the lower sufrace of the lateral hemispheres of the cerebellum, each side of the vallecula- part of the limic system associated with fear
amygdala
aphasia is
a speech disturbance resulting from damage to language areas on the tempral lobes of the brain
all areas of the cerebral cortex that are not specifically sensory or motor in function
association cortex
autonomic system
neural system that connects the brain with the internal organs and glands
________ thin fiber that conducts information away from the cell body of a neuron
axon
__________ branching fibers at the end of axons and pass messages to the next neuron
axon terminals
the brainstem is
lowest portions of the brain including the cerebllum, medulla, and reticular information
_______ area is the language area in the brain related to grammar and pronunciation
Broca's
the brain and spinal cord are located in
the central nervous system
cerebellum is
cauliflower shaped projection at the base of the brain that controls posture and coordination
right and left halves of the cerebrum
cerebral hemispheres
cerebrum is
two large hemispheres that cover the upper part of the brain
nerve cell that serves as a link between two others
connector neuron
bundle of fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
corticalization
increase in relative size of cerebral cortex
1 of 12 major nerves that leave the brain without passng through the spinal cord
cranial nerves
CT scan is
computed tomography scan--computer enhance x-ray image of the brain
fibers projecting from nerve cells that recieve information from other neurons and carry it to the cell body
dendrites
important transmitter substance found in the brain, especially in the limbic system, an area associated with emotional response
dopamine
EEG is
electroencephalograph- device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain
_________ cells are cells in muscles and glands specialized for the production of responses
effector
glands whose secretions pass directly into the blood stream or lymph stream
endocrine system
class of chemicals produced by the pituitary gland that are similar in structure and pain-killing effect to opiate drugs such as morphine
endorphins
enkephalins are
opiate-like brain chemicals that regulate reactions to pain and stress
ESB is
electrical stimulation of the brain- direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue
areas at the top front of the cerebral cortex that include sites associated with control of movement, the processing of smell, and higher mental functions
frontal lobes
__________ matter is areas in the nervous system that have a __________ color due to a high concentration of nerve cell bodies
gray : grayish
hormone secreated by the pituitary gland that promotes bodily growth
growth hormone
hippocampus is
structure in the brain associated with the regulations of emotions and the transfer of information from short term memory to long term memory
glandular secreation that affects bodily functions or behavior
hormones
hypothalamus is
small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion especiallly hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior
channels through the axon membrane
ion channels
limbic system
a system of interconnected structures in the forebrain that are closely associated with emotional response
enlarged stalk at the base of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and controls vital life functions
medulla
production and expenditure of energy within the body
metabolism
motor cortex
an area on top of the brain directly associated with control of voluntary movements
motor neuron
a nerve cell that carries motor commands from the central nervous system to muscles and glands
MRI scan
magnetic resonance imaging-- computer enhanced 3-dimensional representation of the brain or body, based on body's response to magnetic field
fatty layer coating some axons that increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon
myelin
myelin sheath
layer of myelin that insulates some nerve cells (a.k.a. medullary sheath)
bundle of neuron fibers supported by connective tissue
nerves
brain chemicals that regulate the activity of neurons, thereby influencing memory, emotion, pain, hunger, and other behavior
neuropeptides
neurotransmitter
any of a number of chmical substances secreated by neurons that alter activity in other neurons
hormone produced by the adrenal glands that tends to arouse the body and is associated with anger
noradrenaline
adernal hormone that tends to arouse the body and is associated with anger
(a.k.a. noradrenaline)
norepinephrine
portion at the back of the cerebral cortex that includes areas where vision registers in the brain
occipital lobes
______________ system is a branch of the autonomic system responsible for quieting the body and conserving energy
parasympathetic
__________ lobes is an area at the top of the brain that includes sites where bodily sensations register in the brain
parietal
_________________ system is all parts of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous
PET scan
positron emission tomography- computer generated image of brain acitvity, based on glucose consumption in the brain
gland in the brani that helps regulate body rhythms and sleep cycles
pineal gland
the "master gland" at the base of the brain whose hormones influence the output of other endocrine glands
pituitary glands
receptor sites
areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitivge to neurotransmitters or hormones
reflex arc
simplest behavior pattern, involving only three neurons leads from a stimulus to an automatic response (example: eye blink, or knee jerk)
electrical charge that exists between the inside and outside of a neuron at rest
restnig potential
network of fibers within the medulla associated with attention, alertness, and acitvation of higher brain areas
reticular formation
nerve cell that carries information from the senses toward the central neverous system
sensory neuron
main body of a neuron or other cell
soma
_________ system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs
somatic system
somatosensory area
part of the parietal lobes that serves as a receiving area for bodily sensations
1 of 62 major nerves that channel sensory and motor information in and out of the spinal cord
spinal nerve
sympathetic ______ "emergency" system that prepares the body for "fight or flight" during times of danger or high emotion
branch
sympathetic ________ branch of the autonomic system responsible for arousing and acitvating the body at times of stress
system
microscopic space between an axon terminal and another neuron over which neurotransmitters pass
synapse
_________ lobes are areas on each side of teh cerebral cortex that include the sites where hearing registers int he brain
temporal
thalamus
structure at the center of the brain that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex
trigger point for firing
threshold
_________ gland is an endocrine gland whose hormones help regulate metabolism
thyroid
_____________ area is an area of the brain related to language comprehension
WErnicke's
bundles of axons covered with myelin
white matter