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70 Cards in this Set

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Where do glaciers form?
At high altitudes or high latitudes.
What are the two main types of glaciers?
Continental & Mountain
Describe a Mountain Glacier
*Smaller than Ice Valley Sheets
*length greater than width
*only cover a small region
Describe a continental glacier
*Ice Sheet
*Large scale-cover 10% of earths land
*Greenland & Antartica
How do glaciers move?
Externally-slide along water

Internally-melting and freezing
Where within a mountain glacier is the movement fastest?
Where there's less friction
Describe the glacial budget
ice in, ice out
ice accumulated above snow line and melted under the snow line.
How do glaciers lose mass?
Ablation (it melts, breaks off)

Loss of snow/ ice from melting, calving, sublimation, etc.
What are the types of glacial sediment?
Drift, unsorted and sorted.
Describe drift
deposited by Ice(till)
Describe unsorted
deposited by glacier
Describe sorted
material laid down by glacial melt water
Horns?
a pyramid like peak formed by glacial action in 3 or more cirques surrounding a mountain summit.
Aretes?
A narrow knifelike ridge seperating 2 adjacent glaciated valleys.
Hanging valleys?
A tributary that enters a glacial through high above floor.
Truncated spurs
erroded (triangle shaped) cliffs in glaciated valleys
Tarn lakes cirques
An Amphitrate shaped basin @ the head of glaciated valley
Moraines
A pile of debris that has been transported and deposited by a glacier.
Erratics
Boulders left on the surface
Terminal Moraine
Debris pushed along in front of the glacier
Ground Moraine
Debris accumulated under the glacier
Outwash plains
Sand & gravel deposited by glacial melt water
Eskers
Deposited by rivers, running water; sorted.
Drumlins
Tear drop shaped land features; unsorted.
Kettle Lakes
Depressions left after water dries
How do glaciers effect the landscape?
Mountain, Accentuate Landscape=Valley Glaciers

Continental
What are the stages of glaciation in Illinois?
Pre Illinoian
Illinoian
Wisconsin

(All came from the North)
When did glaciation occur in Illinois?
2 million years-started

10,000 stopped

(Ice Age)
What direction did the glaciers advance from?
North
What is the Milakovitch theory?
3 parts that describe position of the earth and climate change

*eccentricity of orbit
*earth changes angle, on the L of its tilt.
*pression of equinox
What are the layers of the atmosphere?
Top: Thermosphere
Mesosphere
Sratosphere
trophosphere(closest to our sky)
In whic layer does the weather occur?
Trophosphere--Closer to the ground
What is in the ancient atmosphere?
water vapor, methane, ammonia and hydrogen
What is in present atmosphere?
78% Nitrogen
21% Oxygen

Driven by energy like lightning
Where are the global atmospheric circulation cells located?
They are from the equator and go up from 0 to 30 and from 30 to 60 and from 60 to 90 in latitude.
What do the global atmospheric circulation cells do?
They transfer energy from low latitudes to high.
What are the global atmospheric circulation cells called?
Hadley Cells
How does acid rain form?
It forms naturally from the environment.
What is acid rain?
occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere
Describe the trophosphere
*Lowest Layer
*Contains 80% of mass of the atmosphere
*where weather occurs
temperature decreases with height
In what layer of the atmposhpere does weather occur?
Trophosphere
Where weather occurs temperature ________ with height.
_______= decreases
Describe the stratosphere
between 15 & 50 km
18% of mass of atmosphere
contains ozone
What is the O-Zone & where does it occur?
Oxygen free and occurs in the:

stratosphere (good) & trophsphere (bad)
Describe the Green House Effect?
Suns short waves heat the ground--warm air raises and heats the greenhouse.
--long wave lengths radiated to the atmosphere.
Gases allow high energy transmission.
What are some of the green house gases?
Water vapor, methane, CO2, CFC's
What drives surface currents?
Wind--Atmospheric circulation
What is longshore transport?
Movement of sediments on a beach. Moved laterally along beach.
What landforms are associated with wave refraction?
SEA Stacks/SEA arches
What are the parts of a wave?
Top: Crest

Bottom: Troph
What causes a wave to break?
Trips over bottom.
When depth to the bottom is 1/2 the wave length.
Does a wave move water or energy?
wave moves energy.

waves move, not H20.
What causes tides?
gravitational pull of sun/moon
What is a spring tide?
Moon and sun are aligned
What is a neap tide?
Sun is pulling opposite of how moon is pulling.
What drives thermohaline (deep sea) currents?
Density difference in the H20 which is caused by temperature and salinity. Cold water is denser and sinks.
What effect does this current have on our climate?
(Surface and deep sea) transfer heat from equator to higher latitudes.
What defines a desert?
Less than 10 inches of percipatation per year.

Can't support large population.
Where are the types of deserts?
Rainshadow, polar, subtropical and coastal.
Describe the Rainshadow desert
Mountain Ranges moister
Describe Subtropical deserts?
30 degree N/S latitude
Describe Coastal deserts?
Cold water ciculation patterns blowing on land.
Describe polar deserts?
Cold air holds little water.

example: antartica/greenland
What are the types of sand dunes?
Barchan, Star, Transverse, Parabolic and Longitudinal
Transverse Dunes
A lot of sand
Describe Subtropical deserts?
30 degree N/S latitude
Describe Coastal deserts?
Cold water ciculation patterns blowing on land.
Describe polar deserts?
Cold air holds little water.

example: antartica/greenland
What are the types of sand dunes?
Barchan, Star, Transverse, Parabolic and Longitudinal
Transverse Dunes
A lot of sand