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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hasty generalizations
applying one common feature to all
ad populum
ad hoc (ergo prompter hoc)
events that occur near one another don't necessarily relate
ad homenem
personal attack
insisting that only two choices are available, or that there are only two ways to solve a problem
red herring
attempt to cloud an issue
appeal to misplaced authority
believing someone just because they are well known
non sequitor
non-response, question doesn't get answered, a response that does not follow
communication intended to influence attitudes, actions, beliefs and values of others
sustained, organized persuasion campaign, usually carried out by closely knit groups, using multiple media to influence mass audiences
threat or use of force
Affirmative case
plan planks
negative case - sig/harms
minimizing harms --> minimizes solvency
negative case - inherency
usually granted to set up disadvantages, but if no inherency, then no need for plan
negative case - disadvantages
link - what the aff plan calls for
brink - existing problem that will be exacerbated
impact - bad things that will happen if the plan is implemented
debate style that leaves conclusion to audience
neg case - topicality
violations of definitions
standards (fairness, bright line)
rules - a'priori issue, aff plan MUST be topical
grants harms
better way to solve
generally NONtopical
competitive and mutually exclusive with aff plan
net benefits without aff disads
burden of proof
rest on aff
must establish prima fascie case
stock issues - harms, inherency, plan, solvency, ads
burden of refutation/rebuttal
rests on neg to respond to aff case
favors negative, assumes that all else being equal, staying with the status quo is less risky
Four functions of rhetoric
prevents triumph of fraud and injustice
method of public instruction
presents both sides of a case
means of defense
things to consider in phrasing the proposition
controversy is an essential prerequisite
more than one central idea can cause confusion
must be stated in unemotional terms
should represent a statement of the affirmative desires
Four Debate proposition types
propositions of fact - true or false
propositions of value - moral or immoral, good or bad
propositions of policy - should or would
quasi-policy - a value judgment about a policy
Methods of defining terms
offer an example of what the term refers to
common usage
authority, such as a dictionary
operation - explain the function of the term
negation - talk about what the term does not mean
comparison and contrast
talk about where the term derives from
combination of the above
Criteria for a satisfactory definition
officially stipulated for the resolution
grammatically correct
derived from the appropriate field
based on common usage
consistent with the policy- or value-maker's usage
meets the original understanding of the proposition's framers
provides a clear distinction between what fits the definition and what is excluded
Types of issues in a debate
potential issues - all possible answers to stock issues questions
admitted issues - issues one side concedes or does not challenge
debate issues - issues actually introduced
ultimate (voting) issue arises when there is only one issue in dispute
contentions - statements offered in support of an issue
Stock issues on propositions of value
definitive issues
what are the definitions of key terms
what are the criteria for the values
designative issues
do the facts correspond to the definitions
what are the applications of the values
Stock issues on propostions of policy
does a compelling problem exist
is the problem quantitatively and qualitatively important
are the causes of the problem built into the status quo
is the problem likely to continue without significant policy action
is there a workable plan of action
does the plan solve the problem
does the plan have advantages
do the advantages outweigh the disads
Locating references
who is concerned with the proposition
who is interested in adoption of the proposition
who is interested in preventing the proposition
Judicial notice of evidence
evidence must be introduced
must be well-known
may be refuted
*absence of evidence is not evidence of absence
Tests of credible evidence (6 C's, 3 R's, 2 S's, 1 U, 1 V)
consistent internally
consistent with other evidence
statistically sound
Tests for statistically sound evidence
accurate collection
accurate classification
accurate sampling
accurately defined units
significant data
reasonable percentage base
fair visual materials
claims only reasonable precision
reasonable interpretation
unbiased questions
stats meaningful to the audience
Testing audience acceptance
consistent with audience beliefs
source of evidence acceptable
suited to audience level
consistent with audience motives
consistent with norms of audience
documented for audience
beliefs not supported by evidence but are taken as real because of constant repetition
classical arrangement of arguments
syllogism outline
major premise - all As are Bs
minor premise - C is an A
conclusion - Therefore, C is a B
Syllogism types
categorical syllogism
must have exactly three terms
every term must be used exactly twice
terms are used only once in a premise
middle term must be used at least once in a universal sense
terms in the conclusion must have been used in the premises
at least one of the premises must be affirmative
if one premise is negative, than the conclusion must be negative
disjunctive syllogism
major premise must include all possible alternatives
alternatives must be mutually exclusive
minor premise must affirm or contradict one of the major premise alternatives
conditional syllogism
minor premise must affirm antecedent or deny the consequent, or no valid conclusion
Toulmin's elements of arguments
claims - usually the resolution
grounds - evidence and reasoning that establish the foundation for the claim
warrants - evidence and reasoning that justify the move from the evidence to the claim
backing - additional evidence and reasoning that support the warrant
modal qualification - degree of cogency attached to claim
possible rebuttals - elements that may impede movement of the argument
General tests of reasoning
are the grounds solid
does the warrant justify the claim
is backing adequate
has the rebuttal been properly evaluated
has the degree of cogency been properly determined
types of reasoning
reasoning by example
reasoning by analogy
causal reasoning
reasoning by sign
tests of example reasoning
are they relevant
are there enough
do they cover a critical time period
are they typical
are the negative examples noncritical
tests of causal reasoning
alleged cause relevant to the effect
only or distinguishing causal factor
probable that no undesired effect will result
no counteracting cause
cause capable of producing effect
cause necessary and sufficient
affects of a new cause
reasoning by analogy
making a comparison between two cases and inferring that what is true in one case will be true in another
causal reasoning
inferring that a certain factor is a force that produces something else
degree of cogency
extent to which an argument is both sound and compelling because it is founded in fact, logic or rationality
reasoning by example
inferring conclusions from specific cases
reasoning by sign
inferring relationships or correlations between two variables
tests of analogy reasoning
significant points of similarity
points of similarity critical to comparison
points of difference noncritical
reasoning cumulative
only literal analogies used for logical proof
tests of reasoning by sign
substance relevant to attribute
relationship between substance and attribute inherent
no counterfactors to disrupt relationship
sign reasoning cumulative
arguing in a circle
assuming as a premise for the argument the very conclusion one is trying to prove
post hoc
assuming a causal relationship without proof
fallacy created by distortion, confusion, manipulation, or avoidance of matters at issue or by substitution of matters unimportant to issue
special pleading
urging an exception to accepted lines of reasoning
straw argument
setting up an issue for the purpose of knocking it down
abundant use of words without conveying meaning
fallacies of evidence
evidence omitted
unsupported assertions
carries an argument beyond its reasonable limits
prima facie case
provides sufficient good reason for adopting a proposition, must provide effective issue statements to answer each of the stock issue questions
What are requirements of a value case
Criterion for each value term
provide application
establish what is intrinsic to the term
What are some types of inherency
structural (barrier or gap)
existential (because the problem exists, the sq must be incapable of solving)
Comparative advantages affirmative
identify goals of status quo
integrate plan with goals
provide direct advantages of plan
prove advantages are comparative
Effective structure for attacking topicality
Reasons to prefer
Impact (voting issue)
Justifications for attacking goals or criteria
Goals/Criteria incompletely identified
Other goals/criteria more important and incompatible
case turn
argument that a harm is actually a benefit
Ways to prove disadvantages
Slippery slope
Provide generic disadvantages
Link - Brink - Impact
Structure of refutation
reference to argument to be attacked
impact - how it weakens the opponents case or strengthens your own
Methods of refutation
evidence - theirs is invalid or irrelevant, or that yours is contradictory and better
Style Factors in speech composition
Appropriate vocabulary
Simple structure
Rhetorical Factors in Speech composition
Coherence - order, transition
Unity - of purpose, of mood
Emphasis - position, time, repetition, headlining, perspective