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233 Cards in this Set

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Abrasion
wear that is the result of non-masticatory movements
Alveolus
small cell or cavity, hence a tooth socket, alveolus dentalis
Amphicone
the result of the initial splitting of the eocone as theorized in the premolar-molar analogy theory
Anatomic crown
portion of tooth covered with enamel
Angle
the junction of 2 or more surfaces
Anisognathous
the upper molars unlike the lower in size and pattern
Ankylosis
fusion of teeth to the jaw bones in some animals, rarely in humans
Anodontia
failure of the teeth to form
Anomaly
unusual variations in position, number and conformation of dentition
Anterior
toward the front of the body
Anterior teeth
the incisors and canines
Apex
the terminal end or tip of the root
Apical
toward the apex of the root
Arcade
the set of arches formed by the teeth
Arch
the curved composite structure formed by the teeth
Articulation
the contact relationship of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth during jaw movement
Asymmetry
A lack of similarity in shape or size between two parts
Artiodactyla
even-toed ungulates ex. Cattle, hog, sheep, deer
Atavism; Atavistic
recurrence of a peculiarity of an unknown ancestor
Attrition
physiological wearing of a tooth caused by mastication
Axial
pertaining to the longitudinally (long) axis of the tooth
Bicuspid
having 2 cusps; inappropriately used for all premolars
Bifurcation
division into 2 parts, as any two roots of a tooth
Bilophodont
having 2 ridges of crests on molar crowns
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/anatomical_images/kinds_of_cheek_teeth/bilophodont.jpg
Brachydont
the length of the root exceeds that of the crown
Bruxism
the clenching or grinding of the teeth
Buccal
next to or toward the cheek in posterior teeth
Buccally
toward the cheek
Buccolingual
from the posterior tooth surface facing the cheek to that facing the tongue
Bulbous
rounded
Bunodont tooth
the tooth crown supports low rounded cusps
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/vertpaleo/resources/fossil_id/arti1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/vertpaleo/resources/fossil_id/art_id.htm&h=184&w=500&sz=60&hl=en&start=6&tbnid=5IeKHz5GDUVemM:&tbnh=48&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbunodont%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D
Canine tooth
the first tooth posterior to the intermaxillary suture above and its opponent below; preferable to “cuspid”
Carabelli’s cusp
an accessory cusp often noted on the lingual surface of the maxillary molar mesiolingual cusp
Carnassial
long bladed premolars and molars especially P4/M1 of the carnivore
Carnivora
flesh eating mammals
Cementoenamel Junction
junction of enamel and cementum; cervical line (CEJ)
Cementum
the bone-like covering of the root, from mesoderm
Central Fossa
a relatively broad deep angular valley in the central portion of the occlusal surface of a molar
Cervical line
a line formed by the junction of enamel and cementum (CEJ)
Cervix (pl. cervices)
a narrow or constricted portion of a tooth in the region of the junction of crown and root
Posterior tooth
the molars and premolars
Cingule
a small cusp or tubercle on the lingual face of the tooth
Cingulum (pl. cingula)
the ridge or tubercle on the lingual face of the tooth near the gingiva
Clinical crown
the portion of crown visible in oral cavity
Coalescence
the structural union of like parts, as the coalescence of the root
Concave
having a depressed or hollow surface
Concrescence
a union of previously separate parts; uniting of teeth by cementum only
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dental.mu.edu/oralpath/lesions/concrescence/concrescence2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.dental.mu.edu/oralpath/lesions/concrescence/concrescence.htm&h=146&w=200&sz=38&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=QDhX7PYpIPjCBM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=104&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dconcrescence%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN
Conical
shaped like a cone
Contact area
that region of the mesial or distal surface that touches the adjacent tooth in the same arch
Converge
to come together
Convex
bulging outward
Coronal
of or pertaining to a crown; applied by some to the occlusal surface
Crest
the sinous cusps or enamel ridges on the molars of herbivore; a projecting ridge or structure
Crown
that portion of the tooth covered with enamel, which is normally visible in the oral cavity.
Crucial or cruciate
having the form of a cross, cruciform
Cusp
a pronounced elevation on the occlusal surface
Cusp Ridges
elevations which extend in a mesial and distal direction from cusp tips. They form the buccal and lingual margins of the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth.
Cuspid
having a cusp or point; inferior term for canine teeth
Cynodonts
Triassic reptiles that possessed some mammal-like features of skull and teeth
http://www.abc.net.au/dinosaurs/fact_files/dried/images/cynodont_p1.jpg
Deciduous
the first set or series of teeth that are replaced by a permanent set
Dentate
having teeth
Dentin(e)
calcified tissue that comprises the bulk of a tooth. It is covered by the harder enamel and softer cementum, from mesoderm
Denticles
calcareous bodies which serve the purposes of teeth; a concretion which develops in the dental pulp as a part of the aging process
http://www.albion.edu/biology/fac_biol/Denticles%20SEM%20Nurse%20Lg.jpg
Denticulate, Denticulated
notched or serrated; having small teeth
Dentigerous
bearing or supporting teeth; supplied with teeth; also containing teeth, as a dentigerous cyst
Dentition
the natural teeth considered collectively in the dental arches
Developmental groove
marks the fusion areas between adjacent cusps and other major parts of a tooth
Diastema (pl. diastemata)
a space between 2 adjacent teeth in the same dental arch, especially the space between the upper lateral incisor and the canine in the carnivora or; in humans, a space between the maxillary central incisors.
Dilaceration
abnormal curvature of the crown or root
Diphyodont
having two sets of teeth
Distal
away from the median line
Distal surface
the surface of the tooth facing away from the median line following the
curve of the dental arch
Distobuccal
relating to the distal and buccal portion of the tooth
Distolingual
relating to the distal and lingual portion of the tooth
Distomolar
a supernumerary tooth found to the distal of the molars
Embrasure
a “V-shaped” space between the proximal surfaces of two adjoining,contacting teeth
Enamel
the hard substance composed of 90% hydroxyapatite, and 6-8% calcium carbonate covering the anatomical crown of the tooth, of ectodermal origin
Entoconid
the distolingual cone or cusp of the talonid of the mandibular molars
Eocone
the first, single coned tooth observed in prehistoric reptiles according to the premolar-molar analogy theory
Erosion
the loss of tooth substance by non-bacterial chemical action
Exfoliation
the loss of deciduous teeth after the physiological resorption of the roots
Facet
the flattened area of enamel or dentin produced by wear
Facial surfaces
the labial and buccal surfaces collectively
Fissure
a cleft or crevice in a tooth surface resulting from the imperfect fusion of the
enamel of the adjoining cusps or lobes
Foramen (foramina)
a passage perforating hard tissues that transmits either vessels and/or nerves
Fossa
a shallow depression or concavity on the surface of the tooth
Furcation
the region of a multi-rooted tooth where the roots divide
Gingiva
the fibrous and mucous tissues that surround the teeth and cover the alveolar tissues
Ginglymoid
hinged, as the jaw articulation of the carnivore; a joint that allow motion around an axis
Gnathic
pertaining to the jaw/cheek
Gomphosis
attachment of the teeth by implantation in a bony socket or alveolus
Groove
a shallow, linear depression on the surface of a tooth
Gum
the gingiva; the soft tissue around the tooth
Haplodont
having undivided or simple tooth crowns in the shape of a single cone
Herbivore
animal whose diet consists principally of plants
Heterodont
having teeth that are morphologically different
Homodont
having teeth that are morphologically the same
Hyperdontia
the condition of excess teeth; supernumerary teeth
Hypocone
the distolingual cusp of maxillary molars
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/anatomical_images/kinds_of_cheek_teeth/bilophodont.jpg
Hypoconid
the distobuccal cusp of mandibular molars
Hypoconulid
the distal cusp, the fifth cusp of mandibular molars
Hypodontia
partial absence of teeth
Hypsodont (Hypsodonty)
Having long teeth; a marked elongation of the crown or body of the tooth; a marked elongation of the cusps.
Idiopathic
An unknown cause
Incisal Ridge
The incisal portion of an anterior tooth.
Incisal Surface
The cutting edge of the anterior teeth, particularly the incisors.
Incisor
One of the cutting teeth in humans; the most anterior (mesial) teeth in the jaw
Interproximal
Between adjoinging surfaces; the proximal surfaces
Interproximal Contact Facets
Flattened areas on interproximal surfaces that result from wear
Isognathous
Having maxillary and mandibular teeth of the same size and pattern
Labial
Next to or toward the lips; of, or pertaining to the lips
Labial Surface
The surface of an anterior tooth positioned immediately adjacent to the lip
Labiolingual
From the anterior tooth surface facing the lips to the surface facing the tongue.
Line Angle
That angle formed by the junction of two surfaces along a line, e.g., the mesiobuccal angle.
Lingual
Next to or toward the tongue; pertaining to the tongue
Lingual Fossa
A broad, shallow depression on the lingual surface of an incisor or canine.
Lingual Surface
The surface of a tooth which faces the tongue; opposite of the facial surface
Lobe
A division of a tooth crown formed from a distinct point of calcification
Lophodont
Having the crowns of the teeth formed in transverse or longitudinal crests or ridges, as in the herbivore
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/anatomical_images/kinds_of_cheek_teeth/lophodont.jpg
Macrodontia
Relatively large teeth (generalized); a large single tooth; also occasionally referred to as “megadont”.
Mamelon
A rounded or conical prominence on the incisal ridge of a newly erupted incisor.
Mandible
The bone forming the lower jaw and supporting the inferior teeth.
Mandibulae
The collective term for both the mandible and maxilla.
Marginal Ridges
Elevated crests which form the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth, and the lingual surfaces of the anterior teeth
Maxilla
The bone supporting the superior teeth and forming part of the orbit, hard palate and the nasal cavity.
Mesial
Toward the median line.
Mesial Surface
The surface of a tooth facing toward the median line following the curve of the dental arch.
Mesiodens
The most common supernumerary tooth usually appearing between the maxillary incisors.
Mesiodistal
From the surface facing the midline to the surface facing away from the midline following the arch curvature.
Mesodont
Having medium-sized teeth
Metacone
The distobuccal cone or cusp of the maxillary molars
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/anatomical_images/kinds_of_cheek_teeth/bilophodont.jpg
Metaconid
The distolngual cone or cusp of the primitive mandibular molars, becoming mesiolingual due to the loss of the paraconid cusp in the Primates
Metaconule
Small, intermediate cusp between the metacone and the protocone of the maxillary molars.
Microdont
Having an abnormally small tooth or teeth
Midline
A line passing through the center
Molar teeth
The posterior (distal) 3 teeth in each quadrant of the oral cavity in homo sapiens
Monophyodont
Having only one set of teeth
Morphology
The study of the shape and structure of an organism
Multitubercular
A tooth crown having many tubercles or cusps
Nidus (pl. Nidi)
A place in which something is nurtured
Oblique ridge
An elevated crest comprised of the triangular ridge of the distobuccal cusp and the distal ridge of the mesiolingual cusp
Oblong
Deviating from square by having one long dimension.
Occlude
To bring the mandibular tooth into contact with the maxillary teeth
Occlusal
the biting surface of a posterior tooth; pertaining to occlusion.
Occlusal surface
The surface of a premolar or molar contained within the marginal and cusp ridges.
Occlusion
The relation between the incising and occluding surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when they are shut; Any contact between the incising or masticating surfaces of the teeth.
Odontogenesis
The development and formation of the teeth.
Odontography
A description of the teeth.
Oligodontia
Absence of many teeth.
Paracone
The mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary molars
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/anatomical_images/kinds_of_cheek_teeth/bilophodont.jpg
Paraconid
The mesiolingual cusp of mammalian mandibular molars. (This cusp has been lost in primates).
Paramolar
A supernumerary found to the buccal or lingual of the molars.
Periodontium
The soft tissue surrounding a tooth
Perissodactyla
Odd-toed ungulates such as the horse, tapir, rhinoceros.
Permanent teeth
The set of teeth that replace the first (deciduous) set of teeth in humans.
Pit
A sharp depression usually located at the junction of two or more developmental grooves or at the termination of a single developmental groove.
Point angle
The angle formed by the junction of three surfaces at a point, e.g. the mesiolabioincisal angle.
Polylophodont
Having multiple lophs or cusps.
Polyphyodont
Having multiple sets of teeth.
Premolar tooth
The 2 teeth anterior (mesial) to the molars in homo sapiens; mistakenly termed the bicuspids.
Procumbent
Leaning or extending forward; like the incisors in Insectivores
Protocone
The lingual cusp of a maxillary premolar, the primitive reptilian cone or cusp of a maxillary tritubercular molar, i.e., the lingual cusp or the mesiolingual cusp of a maxillary molar.
Protoconid
The primitive buccal cusp of a mandibular premolar; the primitive reptilian cone or cusp of a mandibular tritubercular molar, or the mesiobuccal cusp of a mandibular molar.
Proximal surface
The surface of a tooth that faces toward an adjoining tooth in the same arch, i.e., the mesial or distal surfaces
Proximal root concavity
A depression extending longitudinally on the mesial or distal surface of a root.
Pulp
The soft tissue within the pulp cavity consisting of connective tissue containing blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
http://www.cityviewdental.ca/images/photos/tooth_parts.gif
Pulp canal/Root canal
The narrow area of the pulp chamber within the root.
http://www.cityviewdental.ca/images/photos/tooth_parts.gif
Pulp chamber
The expanded cavity within the tooth that contains the pulp.
http://www.cityviewdental.ca/images/photos/tooth_parts.gif
Quadrant
One quarter of the oral cavity, i.e., the maxillary right and left quadrants and the mandibular left and right.
Quadritubercular
Having four tubercles or cusps.
Quinquetubercular
Having five tubercles or cusps.
Ridge
A liner elevation on the surface of a tooth.
Root
The portion of a tooth covered with cementum and normally embedded in the alveolar process.
Root canal
See pulp canal.
Root trunk
That portion or a multirooted tooth between the cervical line and furcation of the roots.
Ruga (pl. rugae)
A fold or crease. The irregular ridges of the membrane of the palate.
Ruminantia or Ruminants
Artiodactyl animals that chew the cud, as oxen, sheep, goats, deer, and others.
Saccule
A small sac or cyst
Secodont
Sectorial or cutting teeth.
Sectorial tooth
The cutting tooth of the Carnivora - a long-bladed premolar or molar; a carnassial tooth.
Shear
To cut as with a pair of scissors.
Selenodont
Having longitudinal crescent shaped ridges, as a molar tooth of the Artiodactyla (ox, deer, sheep, hog, etc.).
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/anatomical_images/kinds_of_cheek_teeth/selenodont.jpg
Succedaneous
Those permanent teeth that succeed or take the places of the deciduous teeth, incl the incisors, canines, and premolars
Sulcus
An elongated valley in the surface of a tooth formed by the inclines of adjacent cusps or ridges which meet at an angle.
Supernumerary
Having more than the usual number (of teeth).
Supplemantal groove
An indistinct linear depression, irregular in extent and direction that does not demarcate major divisional portions of a tooth
Symmetrical
Having the same shape or size on both sides
Talon
The distolingual prominence or heel of a maxillary molar crown, bearing the hypocone, or distolingual cusp.
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Bones/Teeth/Images/Molar6.jpg
Taurodont
A tooth with a large pulp chamber in relation to the crown.
Thecodont
Persisting alveolar sockets that are independent of the presence or teeth, as in crocodiles and alligators.
Thirds
Imaginary divisions of a tooth crown or root as to length (i.e., occlusal, middle, and gingival thirds) or mesiodistal breadth (i.e. mesial, middle, and distal thirds).
Transverse ridge
The triangular ridges of a buccal and a lingual cusp that join to form a more or less continuous elevation extending transversely across the occlusal surface of a posterior tooth.
Triangular fossa
A shallow depression on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth located within the confines of the mesial or distal marginal ridges.
Triangular ridges
Prominent elevations, triangular in cross-section, which extend from the tip of a cusp towards the central portion of the occlusal surface of a tooth.
Tribosphenic/Triconodont
Having three cones or cusps in a linear arrangement, the central one the largest.
Triconodonta
Jurassic animals, unmistakably mammals, which show a triconodont condition of the molars.
Trifurcation
A division into three parts or branches, as the three roots of a maxillary first molar.
Trigon
The arrangement of the first three cones or cusps of a maxillary molar (Metacone, Paracone + Protocone).
Trigonid
The arrangement of the first three cones or cusps of a mandibular molar (Protoconid, Paraconid + Metaconid).
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Bones/Teeth/Images/Molar6.jpg
Tritubercular
Having three tubercules or cusps on the occlusal surface.
Truncate, or Truncated
Cut off or terminated abruptly
Tubercle
A small elevation on the crown of a tooth possibly by excessive accumulation of enamel.
Talonid
The heel, or distobuccal portion of a mandibular molar crown, upon which may develop the entoconid, the hypoconid and the hypoconulid
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Bones/Teeth/Images/Molar6.jpg
Tusk
A prominent incisor or canine tooth which protrudes some distance beyond the lips, as the tusk of an elephant, narwhale, or a walrus.
Ungulates
Hoofed mammals.
Vomerine teeth
Teeth attached to the vomer in the roof of the oral cavity of certain fishes, amphibia, and reptiles.
http://www.caudata.org/cc/images/species/Taricha/T_torosa_teethWEI.jpg
Eruption
movement of tooth from developement in alveolar process to occlusion
Emergence
time that tooth comes through gingiva into oral cavity
alveolar bone
attached to cementum of root by periodontal membrane
periodontal membrane
soft tissue attaching cementum of root to alveolar bone
dental formula
formula that describes the dentition of half of the mouth of an organism
Cheek teeth
posterior teeth for paleontologists, often can't tell dif b/w PMs & Ms
Palatal
Next to the palate on the maxillary arch
height of contour
line encircling tooth at its greatest bulge or diameter
contact point
on mesial & distal surfaces, the furthest point away from the midline that touches the adjacent tooth
Palmer or Zsigmondy system
notation system where teeth are divided into quadrants and counted from the midline, using angles to divide the teeth, widely used in North America
Haderup system
notation system where arches are assigned by + or - and position of sign denotes R or L, used often in Europe
Universal system
Notation system that starts at max M3 and counts toward the left max to M3, then goes to mand L M3 back to R M3, used in the US
F.D.I. system
notation system that assigns a number as a prefix to each tooth denoting the quadrant and counts teeth from the midline, used internationally
shovel-shaped incisor
highly developed marginal ridges on the lingual surface of central or lateral incisors
barrel-shaped incisor
extremely highly developed marginal ridges & cingulum on lingual surface of lateral incisors
peg-shaped incisor
agenesis - cone shaped crowns from not developing properly
foramen caecum incisivum
pit found in the lingual fossa of the maxillary lateral incisor
canine fossa
concavity found on mesial surface of crown extending to a pronounced longitudinal groove on the root of the maxillary 1st premolar
protostylid
An extra buccal cusp on the mesiobuccal cusp, found most often in mandibular 3rd, then 2nd, then 1st molars
http://www.uic.edu/classes/osci/osci590/10_1_5.gif
foramen caecum molarum
buccal pit at the terminus of the buccal grooves of the mandibular molars
Cusp 6 or tuberculum sextum
Extra cusp between distal & distolingual cusps on the distal marginal ridge of mandibular molars
Cusp 7 or tuberculum intermedium
Extra cusp between the lingual cusps of mandibular molars, esp the distal end of the mesiolingual cusp
enamel extension
extension of the enamel into furcations of maxillary & mandibular molars
facial development groove
grooves found on the labial surface of central & lateral incisors, on newly erupted teeth
premolar occlusal tubercle
accessory tubercle sometimes noted on the lingual side of the occlusal surface on premolars
dryopithecus
the Y-5 pattern found on mandibular 1st molars which is most common evolutionarily
enamel pearl
accumulation of enamel at the level of root furcation, found on maxillary 2nd molars