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115 Cards in this Set

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Plane that divides the body into right & left as it passes from front to back
Sagittal Plane
Plane that divides the body into front & back as it passes from side to side.
Frontal or Coronal Plane
Plane that divides the body into top & bottom as it passes perpendicular to the long axis of the body or a body segment.
Transverse Plane
or
Horizontal Plane
The end of a long bone made chiefly of cancellous (spongy) bone.
Epiphysis
A cartilaginous plate located between the epiphysis & the diaphysis & is where growth takes place.
Epiphyseal Plate
generally found toward the epiphysis & is arranged in a honeycombed or lattice fashion. It helps to conserve weight & absorb stress.
Cancellous Bone
Spongy Bone
The shaft of the bone. It is made of hard compact bone.
Diaphysis
Hard bone of the diaphysis that is deposited in layers. Denser & stronger & resists bending.
Compact Bone
A fibrous sheath around the bone
Periosteum
Joints that are very stable with no observable movement.
Fibrous Joints
Sutured Joints
Joints that are quite stable & provide for considerable movement. Fibrocartilage occupies the space between the bones providing shock absorption.
Cartilaginous Joints
Freely moving joints with space between the articular surface of the bones forming the joint, allowing a wide range of motion. They are classified by the number of axes about which they rotate.
Synovial Joints
Three forms of muscle tissue
1. skeletal
2. smooth
3. cardiac
striated, voluntary muscle tissue
Skeletal
non-striated, involuntary muscle tissue. Present in many organs.
Smooth
striated, involuntary muscle tissue
Cardiac
Tough connective tissues that run from bone to bone. You can sprain these.
Ligaments
Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone. You can strain these.
Tendons
Occupies the space between certain bones to form articular surface, e.g. disks between the vertebrae, the menisci of the knee. Functions as a shock absorber. Decrease wear & tear on bones.
Fibrocartilage
Liquid-filled membranes that protect soft tissues as they pass by bony projections.
Bursae
muscle contraction where its insertion is pulled towards its origin.
Concentric Contraction
muscle contraction wherein muscle tension is developed but no real movement takes place.
Isometric contraction
Contraction wherein the muscle develops tension, yet its length actually increases as when putting down a heavy load with controlled motion.
Eccentric Contraction
Three bones that form the shoulder.
scapula
clavicle
humerus
Term referring to the structure formed by the clavicle & scapula.
shoulder girdle
Term referring to the articulation of the humerus & scapula.
Shoulder Joint
Another term for the shoulder joint.
Glenohumeral joint
Ball & Socket joint that is the most freely moving joint in the whole body.
Shoulder Joint
Four attachements of the Trapezius
Clavicle
Base of Skull
Vertebrae
Spine of Scapula
Attachments of the Serratus Anterior?
First 8 ribs
&
Anterior Surface
of Scapula
(vertebral border)
Attachments of the Levator Scapula?
Upper 4 cervical vertebrae
Superior angle of the scapula
Attachments of the Rhomboids?
Upper 5 thoracic vertebrae
Vertebral border of the scapula
Attachments of the Pectoralis Minor?
Ribs 3 to 5
&
Coracoid process
4 attachments of the trapezius.
clavicle
base of skull
vertebrae
scapular spine
attachments of the serratus anterior.
first 8 ribs
anterior scapular surface
(vertebral border)
2 attachements of levator scapula
upper 4 cervical vertibrae
superior angle of scapula
2 attachments of rhomboids
upper thoracic vertebrae
vertebral scapular border
2 attachments of pectoralis minor.
ribs (3-5)
coracoid process
3 attachments of pectoralis major
sternum
clavicle
humerus
2 attachments of coracobrachialis
corocoid process
humerus
4 attachments of litissimus dorsi.
lower thoracic vertebrae
all lumbar vertebrae
ilium
anterior humerus
2 attachments of teres major
scapula: inferior angle
humerus
2 attachments of teres minor
scapula: lateral border
humerus: lat. border (greater tuberosity)
2 attachments of infraspinatus.
scapula: below spine
humerus: lat. border (greater tuberosity)
2 attachments of subscapularis
scapula: anterior surface

humerus: lesser tuberosity
2 attachments of supraspinatus
scapula: superior to spine
humerus: greater tuberosity
Muscles of the Musculotendinous Cuff
AKA the Rotator Cuff
SITS
Subscapularis
Infraspinatis
Teres Minor
Supraspinatus
3 muscles that attach to the corocoid process.
biceps brachii
pectoralis minor
coracobrachialis
2 attachements of brachioradialis
humerus: lateral epicondyle
lateral styloid process
2 attachments of pronator teres
humerus: medial epicondyle
radius
common attachment point for all three sections of the triceps brachii.
olecranon process
2 attachments of anconeus
humerus: lateral epicondyle
olecranon process
common attachment point for flexors of the wrist.
humerus: medial epicondyle
common proximal attachement for extensors of the wrist
humerus: lateral epicondyle
3 muscles forming the hypothenar eminence.
abductor digiti minimi
flexor digiti minimi brevis
opponens digiti minimi
4 intrinsic muscles of the thumb.
AKA - thenar eminence
opponens pollicis
abductor pollicis brevis
flexor pollicis brevis
adductor pollicis
3 attachments of sternocleidomastoid
sternum
clavicle
mastoid process
2 attachments of scaleni
cervicle verebrae
first 2 ribs
2 attachments of quadratus lumborum
lumbar vertebrae
iliac crest
2 attachments of rectus abdominus
pubis
middle ribs
2 attachements external obliques
ribs
iliac crest
The glenohumeral joint represents the articulation of ?
1. humerus
2. glenoid fossa
Muscle action of the deltoid.
abduction
Muscle action of the Teres Major?
Inward rotaion of the humerus
Muscle action of the Infraspinatus?
Outward rotation of the humerus
Muscle action of the Teres Minor?
Outward rotation of the humerus
Muscle actions of the subscapularis?
Inward rotation of the humerus
Muscle actions of the Supraspinatus?
abduction of the humerus &
outward rotation of the humerus
The humerus forms a deep articulation with what?
the trochlear notch of the ulna.
The head of the radius articulates with what?
The capitulum of the humerus.
The proximal radioulnar joint represents the articulation between?
the head of the radius &
the radial notch of the ulna
The distal radioulnar joint is formed by what articulation?
the articulation between the head of the ulna & the ulnar notch of the radius
Muscle actions of the Biceps Brachii?
Flexion & Supination of the Elbow
Muscle actions of the Brachialis?
flexion
Muscle actions of the pronator teres?
Pronation
Muscle actions of the triceps brachii?
Extension
Proximal Carpal Row (lateral to medial)?
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, & pisiform
Distal Carpal Row (lateral to medial)?
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, & hamate
Where is the scaphoid process located?
anatomical snuffbox
The metacarpophalangeal joints are also known as?
knuckles
3 flexors that attach to the medial epicondyle of the humerus?
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Common attachements of the extensors of the wrist?
lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Extensors that attach to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Extensor Digitorum
Name the small fossa formed by tendons at the base of the dorsal thumb?
Anatomical Snuffbox
The spinal accessory nerve innervates?
trapezius
The thoracodorsal nerve innervates?
lattisimus dorsi
The dorsal scapular nerve innervates?
levator scapula &
rhomboids
Suprascapular nerve innervates?
Supraspinatus &
Infraspinatus
Long thoracic nerve innervates?
serratus anterior
Medial & lateral pectoral nerves innervate?
pectoralis major & minor
Axillary nerve innervates?
deltoid & teres minor
Subscapularis nerve innervates?
subscapularis & teres major
Radial nerve innervates?
posterior arm, forearm,
hand, & triceps
Musculocutaneous nerve innervates?
anterior arm, upper arm, &
biceps brachii
Median nerve innervates?
lateral 2/3 of anterior forearm
& hand
Ulnar nerve innervates?
medial 1/3 of anterior forearm
& hand
The axillary artery is the continuation of?
the subclavian artery
The brachial artery is a continuation of?
subclavian artery
The brachial artery branches into?
radial & ulnar arteries
How many bones in the vertebral column?
33
Each vertebra in the spine is seperated by a disk of fibrocartilage, except....?
the vertebrae in the sacrum & coccyx
are fused together and thus have no
fibrocartilage
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
7
The first cervical vertebrae is also called?
atlas
The second cervical vertebrae is also called?
axis
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
12
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
5
anterior and posterior articulations of the 2 hip bones?
anterior:pubis symphysis (with each other)
posterior:sacrum (each one with sacrum)
What three bones form the pelvis?
ilium, ischium, & pubis
The sacroiliac (SI) joint is the articulation between which 2 bones?
sacrum & illium
What represents the anterior connection of the 2 pelvic bones?
pubic symphysis
Attachments of the external oblique?
ribs & iliac crest
Attachments of the internal oblique?
ribs & crest of ilium
An exaggerated anterior curve of the spine?
hyperlordosis
An exaggerated posterior curve of the spine?
hyperkyphosis
Lateral deviations of the vertebral column?
scoliosis