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23 Cards in this Set

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A monohybrid cross looks at traits that result from ...
two alleles (factors or forms of a gene) combine.
If a trait has two different phenotypes and three different genotypes then the inheritance pattern is ...
simple dominance.
If tall peas are dominant to short peas, then the F2 that would result from a pure breeding tall pea crossed with a pure breeding short pea would show this ratio of tall to short ...
3 tall to 1 short.
What is the purpose of a test cross?
To determine the genotype of an individual with the dominant phenotype.
A test cross is done by crossing an unknown individual showing the ______________ phenotype with an individual shown the _______ ___________ phenotype.
dominant

most recessive
Gegor Mendel is famous for his study of heredity by breeding ...
peas!
Alternate forms of genes are known as ...
alleles.
During meiosis two alleles separate so that each gamete receives only one form of the gene. This is known as the principle of
segregation, or law of segregation.
The principal or law of Independent Assortment states that each trait ...
is inherited independent of other traits.
The outward "look" or observable appearance of a trait is known as the ...
phenotype.
The internal, specific arrangement of alleles for a trait is known as the ...
genotype.
A genotype that contains only one type of allele for a trait is known as ...
homozygous or purebreeding.
A genotype that contains different alleles for a trait is known as ...
heterozygous.
If a trait has three different phenotypes and three different genotypes then the inheritance pattern is ...
incomplete dominance.
In a situation where the heterozygous genotype produces it's own unique phenotype, the inheritance pattern is ...
incomplete dominance.
If the phenotype that results from the heterozygous genotype is a blend of the the homozygous phenotypes, the inheritance pattern is ...
intermediate inheritance.

ex: flower colour.
If the phenotype that results from the heterozygous genotype is a full expression of both homozygous phenotypes, the inheritance pattern is ...
codominance.

ex: cattle coat colour (roan cattle)
If there are four or more possible phenotypes, but the trait being considered is still single gene trait, then the inheritance pattern is ...
multiple alleles.

This could then involve an order of dominance, or some combination of other inheritance patterns.
The trait for human blood type is a multiple allelic trait, with A, B, and O alleles.

Explain the interaction of each of these alleles in terms of inheritance patterns.
A and B are codominant with each other.

Both A and B are completely dominant over O.
A carrier is
An individual who possesses a mutant allele but does not express it in the phenotype because of a dominant allelic partner; thus, an individual of genotype Aa is a carrier of a, if there is complete dominance of A over a.
An allele that expresses its phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele is known as a
dominant allele
The first filial generation, produced by crossing two parental lines is known as
F1 generation
The second filial generation, produced by selfing or intercrossing the F1 is known as
F2 generation