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65 Cards in this Set

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Asexual reproduction in unicellular organismism is also called b__________ __________.
binary fission.

You might also say mitosis.
Examples of asexual reproduction in multicellular organisms would include
cuttings in plants, root shoots or runners in plants, cutting up flatworms, buds on hydras or sponges, etc.
The main advantage of sexual reproduction is
variation in offspring.
Some advantages of asexual reproduction are
faster, less energy, no need to find compatible partner.
The molecule that contains all the information on it that an organism needs to function is
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA is packaged into recognizable chunks or segments known as
chromosomes.
A specific region of DNA that encodes for an inheritable trait is known as a
gene.
All of a species genes taken together make up that species
genome.
In it's simplest form, mitosis starts with one cell and ends with
two genetically identical daughter cells.
In it's simplest form, meiosis starts with one cell and ends with
four genetically reduced daughter cells.

The orginal must be diploid and the result will be haploid cells.
The cell cycle has two main stages. They are
interphase and cellular division (usually mitosis).
Interphase of a cell can be further broken down into these sub stages
Gap 1 (G1), Synthesis (S), and Gap 2 (G2).

Perhaps G0 can be recognized too if a cell does not continue through to division.
Some cellular activies that occur during interphase include:
cell metabolism, such as protein, lipid, carbohydrate synthesis; cell organelle
synthesis, cellular respiration, growth of the cell, synthesis of new DNA; DNA replication
The main activity of the cell during "S" phase is
the doubling of it's DNA strands.
A checkpoint in the cell cycle is a point where the cell cycle will
stop and wait for key cellular processes to finish before advancing to the next stage in the cycle.
There are _________ main check points in the cell cycle.
three
Give an environmental limit to cellular division.
One of these:
density-depentent inhibition: high densities stop division.

or

anchorage dependence: cells must be anchored to a substrate to divide.
Cancer cells are regular body cells that now
ignore cell cycle check points, and do not exhibit anchorage dependence or density-dependent inhibition.
If cancer cells leave the site of original tumor growth the tumor is called ___________ and this process of spreading is called ____________
malignant

metastasis
Radiation and chemotherapy work against cancer cells because these treatments target
all actively dividing cells.
During "S" phase, each chromosome is replicated and now contains two ________ ___________.
sister chromatids.
Sister chromatids are bound together by a
centromere or kinetochore.
The stages of mitosis given in order are:
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and then Cytokinesis.
Key events that happen in prophase of mitosis are:
Nuclear membrane disappears
Chromosomes condense
Centrioles move to the poles (animal cell)
Spindle apparatus forms
Metaphase of mitosis is easy to recognize because
the chromosomes line up along the equitorial plate of the cell.
During anaphase of mitosis the sister chromosomes are
separated and pulled toward the poles.
Some key events that occur during telophase of mitosis are:
Chromosomes become less dense
New nuclear membrane begins to form
The cytoplasmic event that immediately follows telophase is known as
cytokinesis
The start of cytokinesis in animal cells can be seen by the evidence of a
cleavage furrow in the cell membrane
The start of cytokinesis in plant cells can be seen by the evidence of a
cell plate begining to form along the equitorial region of the cell.
C
The cell pictured in anaphase of mitosis is labeled
E
The cell pictured in late prophase of mitosis is labeled
D
The cell pictured in interphase is labeled
Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes that
are the same size, shape, and gene assortment (the the genetic content may vary)
The number of chromosome sets in an organism is known as it's ____________ ________.
ploidy count

or "n" number.
Cells with two complimentary sets of chromosomes are referred to as

(has homologous pairs)
diploid or somatic cells.
Cells with only one set of chromosomes are referred to as


(no homologous pairs)
haploid or gamete cells.
Some key events that occur in prophase I of meiosis are
homologous chromosomes pair or synapse to form tetrads
nuclear membrane dissapears
chromosomes condense
centrioles move to poles (animal cell)
In meiosis I ____________ __________ are separated. In meiosis II ____________ __________ are separated, just like in mitosis.
homologous chromosomes

sister chromatids
Chromosomal reduction (from diploid to haploid) occurs in meiosis ____ (I or II).
meiosis I.
List three ways that genetic information is varied through sexual reproduction
independent assortment of chromosomes
crossing over during tetrad formation
random fertilization (or partners)
independent assortment
The principal being illustrated in this diagram is
karyotype
The above picture illustrates the process involved in creating a
The failure of one synaptic pair of chromosomes to separate during anaphase I is known as
nondisjunction.
X_ (X0) -- no Y chromosome.

A rare chromosomal disorder of females (1 in 2500) characterized by short stature and the lack of sexual development at puberty.
Turner's Syndrome.
XXY -- extra X chromosome.

1 in 700 to 1 in 1000 males are born with this condition. About half show lower IQ, slower development. Most are sterile.
Kleinfelter's syndrome.
Extra copy of chromosome 21.
Down syndrome.
DNA is found in the nucleous of most living cells. Give another source of DNA that might be found in a cell.
DNA in mitochonria.

DNA in chloroplasts.
In an organism's life cycle, what process moves from diploid to haploid, and then from haploid back to diploid?
meiosis

fertilization
In life cycles that have multicellular organisms in both the diploid and haploid stages, the haploid organism is known as a ______________.
gametophyte
In life cycles that have multicellular organisms in both the diploid and haploid stages, the diploid organism is known as a ______________.
sporophyte
Many small or single celled organisms will reproduce using _____________ unless conditions become hostile and will then use _____________ .
mitosis


meiosis
alternation of generations is
The alternation of gametophyte and sporophyte stages in the life cycle of a plant.
anaphase is
An intermediate stage of nuclear division during which chromosomes or chromatids are pulled to the poles of the spindle.
binary fission is
Simple cell division in single-celled organisms.
Cancer can be simply defined as
A syndrome that involves the uncontrolled and abnormal division of cells.
The cell cycle is
The cycle of cell growth, replication of the genetic material and nuclear and cytoplasmic division.
Cell Division can be simply defined as
The process by which two cells are formed from one.
The centriole is
A short cylindrical organelle, found in pairs, and responsible for the formation of a spindle apparatus during division in animal cells.
A centromere is
the constricted region of a chromosome, to which the spindle fibres attach during division.
A chromatid is
One of the two side by side replicas produced by chromosome replication before mitosis or meiosis.
A clone is a
An individual formed by some asexual process so that it is genetically identical to its parent.
cytokinesis is
The division of the cytoplasm of a cell into two daughter cells.
A cell having two chromosome sets, or an individual having two chromosome sets in each of its cells. Is known as a __________ cell
diploid.
An abnormal human phenotype, including mental retardation, due to a trisomy of chromosome 2l is known as
Down syndrome.