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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The parasympathetic nervous system effects male sexual behaviour by
allowing blood to enter the penis and cause an erection.
The sympathetic nervous system effects male sexual behaviour by
causing emmission or ejaculation during orgasim.
A woman is most fertile during these days of her cycle
10 - 19

This is by no means accurate for every individual. It is an average based on ovulation occuring on day 14.
The most effective method of birth control is
abstinence!

And you thought it was the pill ;)
If intercourse is going to occur, the most effective method of birth control is
the contraceptive pill, or shot.
If intercourse is going to occur, the most effective method of STD prevention is
male latex condoms.
Sperm can live up to _____ days inside a female after intercourse.
3

Although with life, nothing is ever guarenteed. With perfect cervical mucus sperm can live as long as 5 days or more!
Fertilization typically occurs here for a successful pregnancy
In the fallopian tubes.
An ovum must be fertilized within __________ hrs of ovulation in order for a successful pregnancy to occur
24

Again, this is typical or average. Successful pregnancies could result outside this number.
If 300 million sperm enter the vagina, about how many will enter the cervix?
About 3 million or 1% of the total ejaculate.
After the sperm and egg nuclei fuse this new life is refered to as a
Zygote.
The cellular division needed to go from a one celled zygote to a multi cellular embryo is
mitosis or mitotic division.
When the new life is at the morula stage each contained cell is said to be
totipotent

or undifferentiated
If two eggs are fertilized, each with it's own sperm, the resulting twins are
fraternal or non-identical.
If only one egg is fertilized but two embryos develop, the resulting twins are
identical

They actually have the same DNA.
When the cells of a new life start to differentiate, the cell mass is called a
Blastocyst.

Around days 5 - 7
If a developing blastocyst embeds in the fallopian tube wall it is known as a _____________ pregnancy.
tubal or ectopic

This is very dangerous for mom and child.
The extra embryonic membranes are
Chorion

Amnion

Allantois
In order to signal the mother that a pregnancy has occured, the developing blastocyst must
secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)after embedding in the uterine lining.
The role of HCG in the mother is to
signal pregnancy and cause the corpus luteum to continue to function.
The corpus luteum must continue to secrete these hormones in high levels during the first two trimesters of pregnancy.
Progesterone and estrogen.
In the third trimester, the corpus luteum is not necessary. What has taken over it's hormonal role for the rest of the pregnancy?
The placental wall will secrete it's own progesterone and estrogen.
The chorionic layer has two main functions; they are
to secrete HCG

to form a placenta for nutrient and waste exchange.
The amnion layer will grow into the _________ _______ which will surrond the embryo and fuction to
amnionic sack

protect and cushion the embryo as well as insulate it from temperature changes.
After fertilization, cleavage occurs as the cells divide but the embryo does not become larger. The resulting mass of cells is called a
morula.
The allantois with the yolk sac provide the embryo with
blood cells untill the bone tissue takes over this role.
The three embryonic layers are
Ectoderm

Mesoderm

Endoderm
The ectoderm gives rise to these organs and tissues
skin, nails, hair, lens of eye, lining of the internal and external ear, nose, sinuses, mouth, anus, tooth enamel, pituitary gland, mammary glands, and all parts of the nervous system.
The endoderm gives rise to these organs and tissues
the lining of lungs, tongue, tonsils, urethra and associated glands, bladder and digestive tract.
The mesoderm gives rise to these organs and tissues
muscles, bones, lymphatic tissue, spleen, blood cells, heart, lungs, and reproductive and excretory systems.
The human heart begins to beat by
the third week or around day 21.
The umbilical cord transports ________ to the mother and brings back ___________ to the embryo
wastes


nutrients
The specific site of nutrient and waste exchange is found in the ___________ ________ of the placental wall.
Chorionic Villi
Umbilical arteries carry blood that is rich in ___________ and _________; while umbilical veins carry blood that is rich in ___________ and __________.
waste and carbon dioxide


nutrients and oxygen
From the 9th week on during pregnancy, the embryo is referred to as a
fetus.
During which trimester must the fetus experience a burst of testosterone to become externally male?
The 1st trimester.
Later in the 2nd trimester the fetus will swallow amniotic fluid to
stimulate the formation of internal organs and muscles.

It will also suck it's thumb, urinate and work it's lungs all to stimulate development.
One of the last vital organs to develop fully in a human fetus are the
lungs.

Often not untill late in the 3rd trimester.
The fetus adds fat layers during this trimester
The 3rd trimester.
The fetus grows a waxy coating called the vernix during this trimester
The 2nd trimester.
Main hormones involved in birth include
estrogen
oxytocin
relaxin
epinephrine
endorphins
prolactin
Oxytocin present in large amounts causes the uterus
to contract helping to move the fetus through the birth canal.
Rise in placental estrogen helps the uterus to express receptors for this hormone
oxytocin.
In order for birth to proceed safely, the cervix must
thin and dialate to allow the fetus to enter the birth canal.
Taking samples of the fluid around the fetus and examining the fetal cells is known as
amniocentesis.
Taking fetal blood from the umbilical cord and examining the contained cells is known as
cordeocentesis.
Taking small amounts of tissue from the chorion to examine for chromosomal abnormalities is known as
CVS or chorionic villus sampling .
A noninvasive procedure to examine fetal development and perhaps determine the gender of the fetus is known as
an ultrasound.
A male with testicular non-descent may have reproductive problems because
sperm production must occur a few degrees below body temperature.
An IUI procedure is when sperm is collected, washed and injected
directly into the uterus.
The main steps in IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) are
Ovulation Induction

Retrieval

Collecting and preparing the sperm

Insemination of eggs and embryos culture

Transferring embryos to the uterus