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58 Cards in this Set

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The site of sperm production in males is

(specific location)
the seminiferous tubules in the testes.
This sturcture holds and matures sperm
the Epididymis.
This tube transfers sperm from the testicles to the seminal vesicles.
The Vas Deferens.
The scrotum holds the testicles in place, but also helps regulate
their temperature to keep them 1 - 2 oC below body temperature. This is ideal for sperm production.
Seminal vessicles contribute ___________ and ___________ to semen.
fructose and prostaglandins
The prostate gland contributes ____________ to semen.
alkaline buffer
Seminal vessicles, prostate gland and the ____________________ gland together contribute secretions to make up semen.
bulbourethral (cowpers)
The male penis swells with blood causing an erection. This is important to reproduction because
this allows sperm to be deposited inside the vagina, just outside of the cervix.
In males, the urethra transports
sperm and semen, and urine (though at different times).
Spermatogonia replace themselves in the seminiferous tubules by dividing by
mitosis.
Spermatocytes divide by ___________ and eventually become sperm cells
meiosis
The head of a sperm contains a structure known as the ___________, which holds special enzymes to help break into an egg cell.
acrosome
If an organism has 24 chromosomes in its body (somatic) cells, than it's sperm cells would be expected to contain _________ chromosomes.
12
The mid piece of a sperm cell contains lots of these cellular organelles.
mitochondria

(to provide energy).
Testosterone in a male body is responsible for
hair distribution
growth of larynx
bone growth
protein synthesis
male pattern baldness
sex drive
aggressive behavior (?)
A common surgical method of male birth control known as a ____________, where they cut the ____________, and thereby prevent sperm from leaving the body.
vasectomy,


vas deferense
GnRH
Hormone "A" would be
LH or Leutinizing hormone.
Hormone "C" is most likely
D or "inhibin".
Which hormone would most likely be present in a male birth control pill?
Two common male cancers and their typical age of infection would be
Testicular cancer (early 20 - 30s)

Prostate cancer (later 50 - 70s)
The female structure that is both a gland and the site of ovum developement.
The ovaries.
Fertilization usually occurs in the ____________ ______ for the new life to have time to develop and implant.
fallopian tubes
These extentions help sweep a released egg into the fallopian tubes.
Fimbria.
The lining of the uterus which grows and thickens each month in preparation for a fertile egg implantation is known as the
endometrium linning.
The birth canal or the site of copulation is the
vagina.
The strong muscular ending to the uterus that hold a developing embryo inside during pregnancy is the
cervix.
The analogous structure to the head of the male penis, that provides simtulation in females is the
clitoris
The two hormones that target mammary glands in breast tissue are
oxytocin to let the milk down and prolactin to maintain milk production.
Oogonia do not to this kind of cellular division and therefore to not replace themsleves.
mitosis.
Oocytes continue the process of _______ on their way to becoming mature eggs
meiosis.
Meisosis in a mature ova will only finish if
the ova is fertilized by a sperm cell.
In contrast to male gametogenesis, female gametogenesis results in only one haploid gamete. This is because of
unequal Cytokinesis.

This is needed to provide the new cell with the most cytoplasm as possible.
The absence of a menstrual cycle is known as
Amenorrhea
Menopause in females is when ____________ _______, and usually occures around age _________.
menstrual cycles stop,

50.
Day 1 - 5 of the female menstral cycle iis called the __________ phase and is characterized by
flow

a lack of hormones, causing the endometrium lining to be shed.
Day 6 - 13 of the female menstral cycle is called the _________ phase and is characterized by
follicular

high FSH and later estrogen levels. Ends with a spike in LH
Day 14 of the female menstral cycle is marked by an event called
ovulation.
Day 15 - 28 of the female menstral cycle is called the _________ phase and is characterized by
luteal

high estrogen and progesterone levels from the corpus luteum ends with sharp decline in hormones if no pregancy occurs.
The hormone __________ directly targets the endometrial lining and is secreted by _____________ ____ found in the ___________.
estrogren

follicle cells

ovaries.
High levels of estrogen and progesterone have a ___________ feedback effect on FSH release from the pituitary.
negative
High levels of pre-ovulatory estrogen has a ____________ feedback effect on LH release from the pituitary.
positive
Birth control pills have high levels of these hormones.
Progesterone and estrogen.


Especially progesterone.
Describe a woman's temperature immediately before and during ovulation.
Just before ovulation a woman's core temperature will dip, then spike by 1/2 to 1 degree
Female secondary sex characteristics are often related to the high levels of this hormone found after the onset of puberty
Estrogen.
STDs caused by viruses include
hepatitis B, herpes, HIV and the human papilloma virus (HPV).
STDs caused by bacteria include
chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis.
Do spermicides help reduce the risk for STDs?
No.
Two common STDs that may cause infertility are
chlamydia and gonorrhea.
A common surgical birth control for females is
tubal ligation.
A common female reproductive cancer that becomes more likely with sexual intercourse is
cervical cancer.
Some common female reproductive cancers include
ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer.
HPV, (Human papillomaviruses), can increase the likely hood of this female reproductive cancer
cervical cancer.
When endometial tissue is found outside the uterous in females, they have a condition known as
endometriosis.
cervix


hold the developing embryo in the uterus.
Structure "K" is the __________ and functions to
labia minora

prevent infection of the vagina.
Structure labeled "I" is the ____________ ________ and functions to
B the ovary
This stucture is the site of oogenesis and estrogen and progesterone production
Seminal Vessicles

fructose and prostaglandins
Structure "B" are the _____________ and add __________ and ___________ to semen.
epididymis

hold and mature sperm
Structure "I" is the _____________ and functions to