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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Group of organisms of the same species living in the same area
a population
Considering all of the alleles in a population
a gene pool
Five factors that must be true for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to exist
Random Mating
Equal Viability
No Mutation
No Migration
Large Population
Genotype frequency in a population
AA, Aa, and aa

Usually represented by p^2+2pq + q^2 = 1
Allele frequency in a population
A and a

Usually represented by p + q = 1
Part of H-W equation we use to find the frequency of the heterozygous
2pq
Evolutionary Forces
Gene Flow
Genetic Drift
Non-Random Mating
Mutation
Natural Selection
the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population
Founder effect
the effective population size sharply decreases to a small percentage of the original
Bottleneck effect
Spontaneous genetic change, usually during replication
Mutation
individuals whose genetic variation best adapt them to their environments will be most likely to survive and pass on those traits.
natural selection
one extreme is selected against causing a one way change in the mean of the population
directional selection
Forces selected against both extremes in the population causing the mean to have a higher frequency.
stabilizing selection
some force is selecting against the mean of the population increases the frequency of the extremes.
disruptive selection
a classification of interbreeding organisms whose offspring is fertile
Species
All the populations that live together in a habitat (biotic only)
Community
a community and it’s abiotic factors (like climate, weather, soil, etc.)
Ecosystem
is the type of place where individuals of a species typically live
Habitat
This class of species maintain diversity (richness + evenness) by reducing "competitive exclusion".
keystone predators
organisms that feed on others but are free-living and do not take up residence on their prey
predators
The organism that leads this type of predator-prey cycle
The prey population must lead this cycle.
When predatory and prey change over time.
Co-evolution
An interaction between individuals brought about by a shared requirement for a resource in limited supply
competition
Competition between species
Interspecific
Competition between members of the same species
intraspecific
Similar species can use resources in different ways or at different times to avoid competition
Resource partitioning
Organisms that drain nutrients from their hosts
parasites.
A type of symbiosis where one species benefits while the other is unaffected
Commensalism
A type of symbiosis where both species benefits
Mutualism
Change in the composition of species over time in new environments with no soil present
Primary succession
Change in the composition of species over time where communities were destroyed or displaced
Secondary succession
Changes that happen during succession
Species diversity increases.
Biomass increases.
New, more favorable microclimate.
Greater development of structure.
Food chains more web-like, detritus.
Increased niche specialization.
Increased competition.
first species to colonize barren habitats
Improve conditions for other species who then replace them
Pioneer Communities
More complex and diverse than pioneer, yet not as organized or stable as climax.
Seral Communities
Stable array of species that persists relatively unchanged over time.
Climax Community
The study of how we can actively work to restore damaged communities and reestablish biodiversity
Restoration Ecology