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40 Cards in this Set

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The foot is divided into three major sections. What are they?
-Phalanges
-Metatarsals
-Tarsals
What are the Phalanges?
The toe part of the foot
What are the metatarsals?
The middle section of the foot
What are the tarsals?
1st, 2nd, and 3rd cuneiforms (medial), cuboid (lateral), navicular, and calcaneous (heel bone)
What are the sesamoid bones?
They are found right under the head of the 1st metatarsal (floating bone)
Where is the tuberosity of the navicular?
On the medial side of the foot
What is the trochlea?
The articulating surface where leg bones attach
What are the three arches of the foot?
-Anterior or Metatarsal arch
-Lateral arch
-Medial or Longitudinal arch
How is the anterior/metatarsal arch formed?
-It is curved due to the shape of the cuneiforms
-Wider on top, narrower on bottom
-Frequently broken down by dancers
How is the lateral arch formed?
On the lateral side of the foot, forming from the head of the 4th and 5th metatarsals to the place where the heel touches the ground. It's inflexible and stable.
How is the medial/longitudinal arch formed?
The heel/ankle tallus, cuneiforms, and the first 3 metatarsals.
How does the heel strike occur?
-Takes place on the lateral side of the calcaneus
-Is the first part of the gait
-Control comes from the eccentric contraction
How does the mid-support occur?
-Medial arch takes the weight
-Acts as a shock absorber
-Muscles on both sides of the legs contract to act as antagonists
How does the take-off occur?
You push off the big toe, which is the most efficient because it only has 2 joints, making it more stable
What do the sesamoid bones do?
Act as shock absorbers
What are characteristics of the plantar fascia?
-Connective tissue that supports the dome-like structure of the foot
-Supports, protects, and absorbs shock
-Is commonly over-used by dancers
-Common site of pain, right high in the arch, highly localized
What are the three main foot types?
-Normal
-Flat
-Pes Cavus
What characterizes a flat foot?
When the foot is flat when there is both weight bearing and non-weight bearing
What characterizes a fallen arch?
When the foot is flat when weight bearing, but has an arch when non-weight bearing

-When weight bearing, the navicular will displace medially--happens due to breaking it down
What characterizes a pes cavus foot?
-It has more to do with the top of the foot
-The bones are structurally higher, giving more flexibility in the foot
What is the tibia?
-Long bone
-Triangular in cross section
-Found on the medial side, bearing all the weight from femur to tallus
What is the anterior border?
The shin bone
What is the medial malleolus frequently referred to as?
The "ankle bone"
What is the fibula?
-Bone that articulates with the tibia, but not the femur
-Carries less than 10% of leg weight, but adds stability
What is the lateral malleolus?
The "ankle bone" found on the fibula, on the outside of the leg
What is the interosseus membrane?
Connective tissue that keeps the tibia and fibula together
How many joints and ligaments are in the foot?
34 joints, and over 100 ligaments
What plane do toes have movement in?
Sagittal
What is dorsiflexion?
Brings the foot closer to the tibia
What is plantar flexion?
Moves the foot away from tibia
What are some characteristics of the trochlea?
-Has a wedge shape, getting narrower further back
-When on relevé, you lose stability and tend to pronate
What is the tailor-navicular joint?
-The head of the tallus bone, and the navicular
-Almost a ball and socket joint
What is the sub-tailor joint?
-The tallus/calcaneous joint
-Has inversion and eversion
What is pronation?
Abduction and eversion
What is supination?
Adduction and inversion
How is the true ankle joint formed?
By the articulation of the talus, the inferior articulation surface of the tibia, and the lateral and medial malleolus
What are the medial collateral ligaments? (Deltoid)
-Anterior tibiotalar
-Tibionavicular
-Tibiocalcaneal
-Posterior tibiotalar
-Spring ligament (aka plantar calcaneonavicular)
What are the Lateral collateral ligaments?
-Posterior talofibular
-Anterior talofibular
-Calcaneofibular
What are characteristics of the medial collateral ligaments?
-Very strong and extensive in build
-Are so strong that bones will break before these ligaments will rupture
What are characteristics of the lateral collateral ligaments?
-Has 3 distinct bands
-When seriously or repeatedly injured, the ankle becomes chronically unstable