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27 Cards in this Set

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cytoplasm
The term cytoplasm refers to everything between the cell membrane and the nuclear envelope. It consists of primarily of water. It also contains various organelles as well as salts, dissolved gasses and nutrients.
organelles involved in protein production
er, golgi apparatus, and ribosomes
The endoplastic reticulum
Spreading throughout the cytoplasm is the endoplasmic reticulum. It is a folded system of membranes that loop back and forth giving it a very large surface area. This membrane provides a surface area for cell reactions. It is also the Site of lipid production.

The E.R. comes in two forms:

Smooth E.R. has no ribosomes associated with it The rough E.R. has ribosomes
ribisomes
The rough E.R. has ribosomes attached to it. This gives it its texture. These ribosomes manufacture proteins for the cell.
golgi apparatus
The golgi body is responsible for packaging proteins for the cell. Once the proteins are produced by the rough E.R. they pass into the sack like cisternae that are the main part of the golgi body. These proteins are then squeezed off into the little blebs which drift off into the cytoplasm.
lysosomes
Lysosomes are called suicide sacks. They are produced by the golgi body. They consist of a single membrane surrounding powerful digestive enzymes.
cytoplasm's energy producing organelles
mitochondria and chloroplast
The Mitochondrion
The mitochondrion is the site of aerobic respiration. Most of the key processes of aerobic repiration occur accross its inner membrane. One theory holds that they evolved from endosymbiotic bacteria.
choloroplast (plants)
The Chloroplast is the photosynthesis. It is here that plant cells trap the energy of light and use it to manufactuer food proteins for the cell.
cytoplasm's specialty structures
This last group of cell structures described here and only grouped together for convienence. While the other structures we have talked about are found in all cells these structures are usually found only in certain kinds of cells.

Animal cells generally contain centrioles.
Plant cells generally contain storage vacuoles, cell walls, and plastids.
Cilia and flagella are found in many different life forms.

Be aware that there are many other kinds of living things besides plants and animals.
Centrioles
are found only in animal cells. They function in cell division. Notice the 9 sets of 3 arrangement of the protein fibers.
Vacuoles
are large empty appearing areas found in the cytoplasm. They are usually found in plant cells where they store waste. As a plant cell ages they get larger. In mature cells they occupy most of the cytoplasm.
Cell walls
are the rigid structure found surrounding plant cells. They provide support for the plant
Plastids
are large organelles found on plants and some protists but not in animals or fungi. They can easily be seem through a light microscope. Chloroplasts represent one group of plastids called chromoplasts (colored plastids). The otherclass of plastid are called leucoplasts (colorless plastids); they usually store food molecules. Included in this group are amyloplasts or starch plastids shown here in potato root cell.
cilia and flagella
These are hair like extentions off of the cell membrane. Their structures are similar except that cillia tend to be small and numerous and flagella tent to be large and fewer. Their they beat back and forth rythmically. In unicellular organisms their job is locomotion. In large multicell organisms their role is to move fluid past the cell. Notice the 9+2 arrangement of the microtubles.
Compounds of Cells
Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids
Water, solutes, pH & buffers
Electrolytes
Movement Through Cell Membranes
Diffusion [particles move through membrane from high concentration to low]
Facillitated diffusion [particle through protein channel]
Osmosis is passive transport of water. See more osmosis
Filtration is movement of molecules by hydrostatic pressure
Active Transport pumps solutes against diffusion gradients
Endocytosis is a process in which membrane engulfs particles & large molecules
Diffusion
[particles move through membrane from high concentration to low]
Facillitated diffusion
[particle through protein channel]
Osmosis
is passive transport of water. See more osmosis
Filtration
is movement of molecules by hydrostatic pressure
Active Transport
pumps solutes against diffusion gradients
Endocytosis
is a process in which membrane engulfs particles & large molecules
Cytoplasmic Organelles
ER is made of membrane channels used to transport substances within the cell
Rough ER has ribosomes attached to the membranes
Smooth E.R. lacks ribosomes
Ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein
Golgi is involved in cellular secretion
Mitochondrion has reactions that form ATP
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
Cytoskeleton
is a cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that supports and gives shape to the cell.




Three types of protein fibers make up cytoskeleton.
microtubules
are made of protein, tubulin molecules
also make up spindle that moves chormosomes during mitosis.
also function in movement of Cilia and flagella
also are found in centrioles
Intermediate filaments
microfilaments
The centrosome contains a pair of centrioles and each contains 9 microtubule triplets.
Cilia and Flagella contain a ring of 9 microtubule doublets + 2 central single microtubles.
Cell Cycle and Mitosis produces genetically identical cells
photographs of Whitefish blastula mitosis,
see mitosis animation
Meiosis
reduces double set of chromosomes (diploid) in cell to single set
Proteins
are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by a gene and encoded in the genetic code. Although this genetic code specifies 20 "standard" amino acids, the residues in a protein are often chemically altered in post-translational modification: either before the protein can function in the cell, or as part of control mechanisms. Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable complexes.

Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of all living organisms and participate in every process within cells. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions, and are vital to metabolism. Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which forms a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. Protein is also a necessary component in our diet, since animals cannot synthesise all the amino acids and must obtain essential amino acids from food. Through the process of digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids that can be used for protein synthesis.