Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What nuclear changes are characteristic of degenerative neutrophils?
decreased nuclear stain intensity

nuclear swelling
etiologies for suppurative inflammation
bacteria
fungus
immune mediated
chemical irritation
neoplasia
etiologies for granulomatous or pyogranulomatous inflammation
fungus
foreign body
chronic inflammatory conditions
Mycobacterium
3 cell types assoc. w/ granulomatous inflammation
activated MPs
epitheliod MPs
multinucleated giant cells
etiologies for lymphocytic inflammation
immune mediated (allergies)
viruses
gastroenteritis
vaccine rxn
etiologies for eosinophilic inflammation
tissue parasites
fungus
paraneoplastic (LSA, MCT)
hypersensitivity
What is atypical hyperplasia?
expanded intermediate lymph pop’n (may be predominant cell type)

can occur w/ some systemic inflammatory dz (Ehrlichiosis, FeLV)

may be hard to distinguish from small cell lymphoma
What are some disorders in which intermediate sized lymphocytes may predominate?
small & intermediate sized lymphomas

atypical hyperplasia

feline GI lymphoma vs. lymphoplasmacytic inflammation
Epithelial cells

a. cellularity
b. arrangement
c. shape
d. borders
e. special feature(s)
a. good
b. clusters
c. round-oval alone, cuboidal, columnar, or polygonal in clusters
d. distinct cell borders
e. clear cell-cell junctions
Neuroendocrine cells

a. cellularity
b. arrangement
c. shape
d. borders
e. special feature(s)
a. good
b. clusters or acinar arrangements
c. cuboidal to round
d. variably distinct
e. naked nuclei
Mesenchymal Cells

a. cellularity
b. arrangement
c. shape
d. borders
e. special feature(s)
a. poor
b. individual
c. spindle or oval
d. wispy
e. may see matrix
Round Cells

a. cellularity
b. arrangement
c. shape
d. borders
e. special feature(s)
a. very good
b. individual
c. round
d. distinct
What is metaplasia?
replacement of 1 adult cell type by another
Give 2 examples of metaplasia
squamous metaplasia of bronchial epi d/t chronic irritation

squamous metaplasia of prostatic epi d/t irritation or estrogen
What is dysplasia?
abnormal cellular development that is NOT neoplastic
What is a characteristic feature of dysplastic cells?
mature cytoplasm w/ immature nuclei
What are some nuclear criteria of malignancy?
-macronuclei or nuclear fragments (micronuclei)
-anisokaryosis
-multinucleated cells, esp. variably sized or odd # of nuclei (cell didn’t divide properly)
-irregular nuclear shape
-abnormal mitotic figures: chromatin going in > 2 directions
-nucleoli: multiple, large; angular or irregularly shaped; variably sized
-atypical chromatin patterns
-nuclear molding: nucleus of 1 cell deformed by growth of adjacent cell
-variable nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio
What are some other criteria of malignancy?
-↑ basophilia of cytoplasm
-vacuolization
-atypical granulation -presence of foreign cell pop’n
-phagocytosis
What are the types of epithelial tumors we must ID?
-tumors w/ follicular differentiation
-basal cell tumor
-perianal gland adenoma
-apocrine gland adenocarcinoma
-squamous cell carcinoma
What are the types of mesenchymal tumors we must ID?
-lipoma
-soft tissue sarcoma
What are the types of round cell tumors we must ID?
-histiocytoma
-mast cell tumor
-plasmacytoma
-transmissible venereal tumor
What are the normal protein & cell values for a pure transudate?
protein < 2.5 g/dl

cells < 1500/ul
What are the normal protein & cell values for a modified transudate?
2.5 < protein < 7.5 g/dl

1000 < cells < 7000/ul
What are the normal protein & cell values for an exudate?
protein > 3 g/dl

cells > 7000/ul
What are 3 differences between equine & other species normal pleural or peritoneal fluid?
HORSE:
higher cellularity: 4000/ul vs. 3000/ul
larger volume
mix of large mononuculear cells & non-degenerate neutrophils vs. mostly large mononuclear cells
What are the 2 types of cancer are commonly seen in effusions?
carcinoma
lymphoma
What is the cell composition of chylous effusion?
mostly small well differentiated monocytes (can have inc. neutrophils w/ time)
What is the pathognomonic cytologic feature assoc. w/ FIP?
eosinophilic, stippled background
What is the primarily inflammatory cell type seen w/ FIP?
non-degenerate neutrophils
ddx: pure transudate or modified transudate
dec. oncotic pressure (hypoalbuminemia)
inc. hydrostatic pressure (R heart failure)
neoplasia
bile peritonitis
chylous effusion
ddx: exudate
non-septic: FIP, post-surgical, colic, volvulus, intussesception

septic: 99% bacterial, may be fungal
Mycobacterium

a. description
b. extracellular or intracellular?
c. type of inflammation
a. slender, non-staining rods
b. extracellular or w/in MPs
c. granulomatous/pyogranulomatous
Actinomyces/Nocardia

a. description
b. extracellular or intracellular?
a. long filamentous rods, basophilic & beaded, sulfur granules
b. extracellular
Dermatophilus

a. descriptoion
b. extracellular or intracellular?
a. coccoid spores that make basophilic branching rows ("stacked coins" or "tram track")
b. extracellular
Histoplasma

a. description
b. extracellular or intracellular?
c. size
d. type of budding
a. oval w/ no capsule: half empty, half full appearance
b. intracellular
c. 2-5 um
d. budding usually not seen
Cryptococcus

a. description
b. extracellular or intracellular?
c. size
d. type of budding
a. round w/ wide non-staining capsule
b. extracellular
c. 5-25 um
d. narrow based (tear drop)
Blastomyces

a. description
b. extracellular or intracellular?
c. size
d. type of budding
a. dark blue, round, refractile w/ no capsule
b. extracellular
c. 5-30 um
d. broad based
Sporothrix

a. description
b. extracellular or intracellular?
a. basophilic round or football shaped yeast
b. intracellular
Malassezia

a. description
a. basophilic oval yeast w/ broad based budding ("shoe print")
Aspergillus

a. description
a. thin septate branching hyphae; fruiting bodies

must culture to ID
Oomycetes/Zygomycetes

a. description
non-staining poorly septate branching hyphal elements
Toxoplasmosis

a. description
banana shaped tachyzoites that may look round or oval w/in cells
Describe the cellular composition of:

a. normal lymph node
b. reactive/hyperplastic ln
c. lymphoma
d. lymphadenitis
e. metastasis w/in ln
f. perinodal fat
g. salivary tissue
a. 75-95% small lymphs
b. > 50% small lymphs
c. > 50% lymphoblasts
d. inc. neuts, eos, MPs, or MNGCs
e. presence of foreign cell pop'n
f. huge cells w/ tiny nuclei
g. streaming pink background w/ windrowing of RBCs, naked nuclei, & glandular epi cells
Describe the cytologic appearance of a mucocele.
pink/light blue mucus background
large vacuolated cells w/ abundant cytoplasm
Describe the cytologic appearance of sebaceous hyperplasia.
clusters of epi cells w/ lots of highly vacuolated cytoplasm & small central nuclei
+ reserve cells
mast cell tumor

a. cell type
b. description
c. inflammatory cells present
a. round
b. cytoplasm full of purple granules that obscure nucleus
c. +/- eos
histiocytoma

a. cell type
b. nucleus description
c. cytoplasmic characteristic
d. inflammatory cells present
a. round
b. round to indented
c. LIGHTER outside (scalloped cell border)
d. small lymphs
plasma cell tumor

a. cell type
b. nucleus description
c. cytoplasmic characteristic
a. round
b. round to indented nucleus w/ coarse chromatin
c. DARKER outside

binucleated cells common
TVT

a. cell type
b. nucleus description
c. cytoplasm description
a. round
b. round nucleus w/ coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli
c. pale w/ scattered vacuoles
basal cell tumor

a. behavior, features look ___
b. cell type
c. cell shape
d. cytoplasm
a. benign w/ benign features
b. epithelial
c. clustered cuboidal cells
d. deeply basophilic cytoplasm
Perianal adenoma

a. behavior, features look ____
b. cell type
c. cell shape
d. cytoplasm
a. benign w/ benign features
b. epithelial
c. clusters of "hepatoid" cells
d. pink/blue mottled cytoplasm

also reserve cells
apocrine gland adenocarcinoma

a. behavior w/ ________ features
b. cell type
c. description
a. malignant w/ benign features
b. epithelial
c. neuroendocrine: acinar arrangements; pale cytoplasm, round nuclei, naked nuclei
SCC

a. behavior w/ ______ features
b. cell type
c. description
a. malignant w/ malignant features
b. epithelial
c. keratinization: angular cells w/ pale to deep blue cytoplasm ("ground glass")

overt criteria of malignancy
tumors w/ follicular differentation/follicular cyst

a. behavior w/ _____ features
b. cell type
c. description
a. benign w/ benign features
b. epithelial
c. mature squamous cells +/- ghost cells, keratinized cells & debris
lipoma

a. cell type
b. description
a. mesenchymal
b. clusters of huge ring shaped cells w/ tiny nuclei
soft tissue sarcoma

a. cell type
b. description
a. mesenchymal
b. criteria or malignany, caution w/ inflammation
melanoma

a. description
a. variable appearance, malignant features, pigmentation
histiocytic proliferative disorders

a. description
a. pleomorphic pop'n of discrete cells: MNGCs, erythrophagia
oval, spindle, or irregular shape
overt criteria of malignancy