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162 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 parts of the Cell Theory?
1- all living things are composed of cells or a cell
2- cells are basic units of structure and function in living things
2- New cells are produced from existing cells
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek discover?
tiny living organism in pond water
What did Robert Hooke discover?
plant cell, cell walls in cork tissue
range of cell size
most are 5 to 50 micrometers in diameter
What has the smallest cells and usually what range?
bacteria : 0.1 to 1.0 microns
3 funtioncs of cell membrane
1- regulates what eneters leaves the cell
2- helps protect and support the cell
3- separates th cell from the environment
what is a phoslipid? (describe)
- double-layered membrane
- gives flexible structure
- makes cell membranes
what are the 3 types of proteins in the cell membrane?
1- protein channel (some are pumps)
2- marker proteins
3- receptor proteins
What is a protein channel?
it lets things go in and out of a cell
what is a protein pump?
it pumps and moves things around a cell
what are carbohydrates inside a cell used for?
chemical identification cards
groups of cells that have a cell wall
plants, algae, fungi, and many prokaryotes
what are the 2 functions of a cell wall?
1- provides support
2- provides protection
what is the structure of a cell wall?
fibers of carbohydrate and protein
cells without a nucleus
prokaryotes/prokaryotic cells
cells with a nucleus
eukaryotes/eukaryotic cells
4 functions of a nucleus
1- information center
2- has the DNA of the cell
3- contains "recipe" for making all the compounds that the cell will need
4-directs all activities of the cell
what is a chromatin?
DNA bound to proteins
What are the 3 components of a nucleus?
1- nuclear envelope
2- nucleolus
3- chromosomes
What is the function of a nuclear envelope?
it has two membranes with pores to allow materials to move in and out
What is the function of a nucleolus?
produces ribosomes
What happens to ribosomes after it's produced in a nucleolus?
it moves to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
When are chromosomes visible?
during mitosis
What is the definition of cytoplasm?
the area between nuclear envelope to the cell membrane
What is the definition of organelles?
structures that perform special functions
What is the structure of mitochondria?
- 2 membranes
- the inner membrane is folded up inside organelles
What is the function of mitochondria?
converts chemicalenergy stored in food ito convenient compounds for cellular use
Where are chloroplasts only found in?
plant cells and some protists
what is the structure of chloroplasts?
many membranes does the chloroplast have?
2
What are the 3 components of organelles?
- mitochondria
- chloroplasts
- ribosomes
what is the function of mitochondria?
change food energy into energy the cell can use
what are ribosmes made of?
small particles of ___ and ____
small particles of RNA and proteins
what does ribosomes do?
makes proteins
What the 2 types of ribosomes?
free and attached
some examples of unicellular organisms...
protist
bacteria
cells are the building units of..
any living things
when did Anton van Leeuwenhoek discover tiny living organisms?
1674
where was Anton van Leeuwenhoek from?
Halland/Netherlands
Anton is the "father" of the first..
single lens microscope/ magnifying glass
Even though Robert Hooke discovered the "first cells" what did he really see?
leftover cell walls that are empty
Robert Hooke named
"cells"
What did Robert Hooke think the cell walls looked like?
the tiny cell rooms in the monastery
micro/micrometer is... of a mm
1/1000
what are the 3 basic structures of a cell?
1- cell membrane
2- nucleus
3- cytoplasm
Explain the cell membrane in the cell structure
boundary around the cell that separates the cell from the environment
Explain the cell nucleus in the cell structure
control center of any eukaryotic cells
Explain the cytoplasm in the cell structure
from nuclear envelope to the cell membrane
the cytoplasm is mostly...
water
What regulates what enters and leaves the cell, and what not?
cell membrane NOT cell wall
there are lots of... inside cells
water
explain the phospholipid bilayer (its name)
phospholipid - lipid with phosphorous
bilayer - 2 layers
phosphate group likes... and reacts... so they are ...
water
turns towards it
hydrophillic
fatty acid chains dislikes.. and reacts.. so they are...
water
turns away from it
hydrophobic
without the phosphate group, there will be no ______
cell membrane
Explain the marker proteins inside the cell membrane
used for identification, like a name tag
explain the receptor proteins inside a cell membrane
proteins that bind with a specific molecules
analogy used for receptor proteins is :
lock and key
there are only _ types of cells
2
prokaryotes has long coil of ...
DNA
Prokaryotes has no ___ and no ____
true nucleus
no membrane-bound organelles
what are membrane-bound organelles?
organelles without membranes
what type of organelle does prokaryotes have?
ribosomes
does ribosomes has membranes?
no
eurkaryotes have ___ and ____
true nucleus
membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotes has ribosomes to make ...
proteins
The core of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called...
lipid bilayer
difference between function of proteins and carbohydrates attached to a cell membrane?
protein - helps transport substances or to help with the process

carbohydrates - chemical ID cards
T or F?

the cell wall lies inside the cell membrane
F
what are plant cell walls mostly made of?
fibers of carbohydrates and proteins
cell wall allows ....
certain substances to pass through easily
why does cell wall allow certain substances to pass through easily?
because it's very porous
there are _ layer in the cell wall
2
what is chitin?
the cell wall material in fungi
what is the plant cell wall material?
cellulose
between cell walls that acts like glue to hold cells together:
pectin
nucleus is the.. (analogy)
brain
neucleus is the... ____ control center
genetic
nucleus contains chromatin which are ___ in proteins in the nucleus when the cell is _________
DNA
not dividing
structure of nuclear envelope?
two membranes with pores
why does the nucleolus make ribosomes in 2 parts?
so it can get out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores
what are nucleolus made up of?
___ and ___
RNA and protein
what are chromosomes made up of?
___ and ____
DNA and protein
what is mitosis?
______... NOT the _______
division of a nucleus NOT the cell division
if the cell is not divided, then you do not see the ___
chromosomes
what is the division of cytoplasm called?
cytokaineses
plasma membrane = _____
cell membrane
where are organelles found in?
cytoplasm
why is the inner membrane folded in?
to increase surface area
the energy converted by the mitochondria can be stored into...
ATP
analogy for mitochondria?
power factory
photosynthesis takes ____, ____, and _____ and stores it in _____
water, carbon dioxide, solar energy, glucose
the stacks in chloroplasts are called..
grana
the pancakes in grana are called..
thylakoids
why are there stacks in chloroplasts?
to ________________ to store ____
to increase surface area to store energy
chloroplasts' waste ____
oxygen
where are ribosomes found in?
throughout the cytoplasm
how does the ribosomes make the proteins? (with what)
with the recipe from the DNA in the nucelus
ribosomes can be attached to ____ and to _____
endoplasmic reticulum and to nuclear envelope
ER stands for:
endoplasmic reticulum
ER is a network of ____ in the _____
membranes in the cytoplasm
ER is the place where many ______ are changed and altered
biochemicals
what does ER do?
transport materials throughout the cell
ER can be like a ___ or a ___ (its form)
tunnel or a channel
what are the two types of ER?
rough and smooth
why is rough called rough?
and why is smooth called smooth?
because there are ribosomes stuck on them
because there aren't any ribosomes stuck on them
the smooth ER works a lot to break down _____ in the cell
toxin/bad things
liver cells contain many of these
smooth ER
the rough ER chemically ___ newly made ___
modifies, proteins
Golgi Apparatus appears as a _____________
stack of closely apposed membranes
what does apposed mean?
mutually fitting
Golgi Apparatus is somewhat like a ________ shop
customization
the function of the golgi apparatus is to ___, ___, and ____ _____ and other materials from the ___ ____ for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell
sort, modify, package proteins, endoplasmic reticulum
golgi apparatus is where things can be changed and be ____ to be sent out of the cell
readied
homeostasis is the ____ of a ____ internal environment
maintenance, controlled
lysosomes is the .... (analogy)
cleanup crew
lysosomes: small organelles filled with ____
enzymes
function of lysosomes is to ________ lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into usable small molecules for cells to use
break down
lysosomes break down... what?
proteins, lipids, carbohydrates
paramecium contains a vacuole called a ____ vacuole that pumps ____ ____ out of the cell
contractile, excess water
vacuoles are the ___ ____ (analogy)
storage place
vacuoles and found in some ____ organisms and some ____
unicellular, animals
vacuoles are like ... (structure)
sacs
vacuoles support ____ in ____ cells
heavy structures in plant cells
vacuoles store materials such as ____, ___, ____, and ____
water, salts, proteins, carbohydrates
plant cells' vacuole is a single large one filled with ____
liquid
plastids has ____
DNA
pastids' structure is large thing ___with ____ membrane
tubes, double
plastids' function is to ___ molecules such as ___ or ____(starch)
store, pigment, food(starch)
special types of plastids - 3:
chloroplasts
leukoplasts
chromoplasts
chloroplasts are biological equivalents of _____ ______ ______
solar power plants
chloroplasts has large stacks of other _____
membranes
chloroplasts uses _______ to convert solar energy into chemical energy
photosynthesis
what color and leukoplasts?
colorless
leukoplasts stores ___, ____, and ___ althought they're not a major source for storage
lipids, proteins, starch
chromroplasts are involved with ____ which gives color
pigmentation
cytoskeleton are composed of _____ and ___
protein filaments and fibers
the 2 principle protein filaments that make up the _____ are ___ and _____
cytoskeleton, microfilaments, microtubules
cytoskeleton is the structure of a _____ in the analogy
building
microfilaments are threadlike with the protein ____
actin
microfilaments help with the ____ the supports the cell
framework
microtubules are hollow with proteins ____
tubulins
microtubules main the cell ____
and is involved with cell ___
shape, division
microtubules form a structure known as the _____ ____, which helps to separate chromososomes
mitotic spindle
in animal cells, tubulin is also used to form a pair of structures known as _____ that are located near the nucleus and help to organize cell ____
centrioles, division
centioles are only in ____ NOT ___
animals, plants
what is cytoplasmic streaming?
the flowing of cytoplasma in eukaryotic cells
newly made proteins leave the ribosomes from ____ and are inserted into the ____ where they may be chemically ____
rough ER, rough ER, modified
_____ that are destined for places outside the endoplasmic reticulum are packed into _____ and moved along the _____ toward their destination.
Proteins, vesicles, cytoskeleton
Proteins from the rough ER are put into ______, then it's absorbed into the _____, then from there, it's put into the _____, and then moved to their _____
vesicles
golgi apparatus
vesicles
final destination
lysosomes contain _____, which can open up in certain things and make them "self-destruct" example: they open up in the tail of tadpole and "self-destruct" itself to make the tail disappear
digestive enzymes
lysosomes can cause changes in _____
development
chromroplasts stores _____
other pigments
proteins are generally used for _____ or _____
support
movement
cytoplasmic streaming is in a _____ state of _____
constant, motion
plastids also make ____
food
chloroplasts stores ____
chlorophyll
leukoplast example.. it's in the ____ of a ____
root, potato
a use of a cytoloskeleton: they support the ____
cell
a use of a cytoskeleton: they drive cell movement of ____
organelles
a use of a cytoskeleton: movement of organelles can ____ onto one of the ____ and move around
hook, protein tubules
a use of a cytoskeleton: there's a network of small ____
proteins
cytoplasmic streaming is caused by the ____
cytoskeleton