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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
all cells are surrounded with a thing, flexible barrier called the ____
cell membrane
many cells also produce a strong supporting layer around the cell membrane called the ____
cell wall
cell membrane regulates ____ and provides ____
what goes in and out
protection and support
composition of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called the ____
lipid bilayer
what are embedded in cell membranes?
proteins
what are attached to cell membranes?
carbohydrates
cell walls are found in ____
plants, algae, fungi, and many prokaryotes
cell walls provides ____ for the ____
protection and support for the cell
cell walls are made of ____
fibers of carbohydrates and proteins
every living cell sexists in ____ environment
liquid
cell membrane regulates the movement of ____ from the ____ of one side of the ____ to the liquid on the other side
dissolved molecules
liquid
membrane
concentration
mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
diffusion
process of when molecules move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
diffusion doesn't require ____
energy
equilibrium
when concentration is same throughout a system
some particles are too strongly charged or too large to cross the ____
liquid bilayer
if a substance is able to diffuse across a membrane, the membrane is said to be ____ to it
permeable
most biological membranes are ____, meaning that some substances can pass across them and other cannot
selectively permeable
____ passes quite easily across most membranes, even though many solute molecules cannot
water
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
water will tend to move across the membrane until ____ is reached
equilibrium
isotonic means
"same strength"
hypertonic means
"above strength"
hyptonic means
"below strength"
in hypertonic solution, animal cells ____ and plant cell ____ collapse
shrink
vacuoles
in a hypotonic solution, animal cells ____ and ____, and the vacuoles of plant cells ____, pushing the cell contents out against the cell wall
swell and burst
swell
for organisms to survive, they must have a way to balance the ____ and ____ of water
intake loss
osmosis exerts osmotic pressure on the ____side of a selectively permeable membrane
hypertonic
most cells in large organisms aren't in danger of bursting. they don't come in contact with ____. instead, they are bathed in fluids, such as blood, that are ____
fresh water, isotonic
the isotonic fluids that cells are bathed in have ____ of ____ roughly equal to those in the cells themselves
concentration
dissolved materials
plant cells are surrounded by tough cell walls the prevent the cells from ____, even under tremendous ____
expanding, osmotic pressure
increased osmotic pressure makes the plants cells extremely ____ to ____ to their cells walls
vulnerable, injuries
a few molecules, such as the ____, seems to pass through the cell membrane much more quickly than they should
sugar glucose
how does some strongly charged or large molecules pass through the cell membrane much more quickly?
cell membranes have protein channels that make it easy for certain molecules to cross the membrane
red blood cells have a cell membrane ____ with an internal ____ that allows glucose to pass through it
protein, channel
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across the cell membranes through protein channels
faciliated diffusion is ____ and ____
fast and specific
active transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
the active transport of small molecules or ions across a cell membrane is generally carried out by ____ or "____" that are found in the ____ itself
transport proteins or "pumps", membrane
endocytosis
process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane
the pocket that results in endocytosis breaks loose from the outer portion of the cell membrane and forms a ____ within the ____
vacuole, cytoplasm
two examples of endocytosis
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
phgocytosis
extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole
____ uses phagocytosis to take in food
amoebas
engulfing material requires a considerable amount of ____
energy
pinocytosis
when a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
in pinocytosis, tiny pockets form along the cell ____, fill with ____, and pinch off to form ____ within the ____
membrane, liquid, vacuoles, cell
exocytosis
when a cell release large amounts of material
during exocytosis, the membrane of the ____ surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents ____ of the cell
vacuole, out