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58 Cards in this Set

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Cytokines regulate
Intensity and Duration of Immune Response (innate and adaptive)
Haematopoiesis
Wound Healing
Cytokines regulate
Intensity and Duration of Immune Response (innate and adaptive)
Haematopoiesis
Wound Healing
Cytokines are
Low molecular weight regulatory proteins/glycoproteins
Cytokines are
Low molecular weight regulatory proteins/glycoproteins
What are interleukins?
Cytokines from Leukocytes
What are interleukins?
Cytokines from Leukocytes
Characterisics of Cytokines
(5)
Most have unique receptors (apart from chemokines)
Most are secreted (some are membrane bound)
Work as part of a network
Work Locally + In V Low Concentrations
Have short half life
Characterisics of Cytokines
(5)
Most have unique receptors (apart from chemokines)
Most are secreted (some are membrane bound)
Work as part of a network
Work Locally + In V Low Concentrations
Have short half life
"Families of Cytokines (based on S
not F)"
"Families of Cytokines (based on S
not F)"
Cytokines regulate by affecting
Proliferation
Differentiation
Cell Survival/Death
Activation
Migration (chemokines)
Cytokines regulate by affecting
Proliferation
Differentiation
Cell Survival/Death
Activation
Migration (chemokines)
Actions of cytokines can be
Autocrine - affecting the own cell
Paracrine - affecting nearby cells
Endocrine - affecting a distant site
Pleiotropic - one cytokine has many effects
Redundant - many cytokines have similar actions
Actions of cytokines can be
Autocrine - affecting the own cell
Paracrine - affecting nearby cells
Endocrine - affecting a distant site
Pleiotropic - one cytokine has many effects
Redundant - many cytokines have similar actions
Example of Autocrine
IL2 by activated T Cells
Example of Autocrine
IL2 by activated T Cells
Example of Paracrine
IL12 by macrophage -> T cell to Th cell
Example of Paracrine
IL12 by macrophage -> T cell to Th cell
Example of Endocrine
IL1 from macrophage affects brain cells (hypothalamus)
Example of Endocrine
IL1 from macrophage affects brain cells (hypothalamus)
Cytokines can act in manner that's
Synergistic
Antagonistic
Feedback loop
Cytokines can act in manner that's
Synergistic
Antagonistic
Feedback loop
Cytokine Receptor Structure
More than one sub unit - 2-3
Some for binding - some for signal transduction
Cytokine Receptor Structure
More than one sub unit - 2-3
Some for binding - some for signal transduction
Regulation of Cytokines
Induction ->
mRNA is formed (along w/ regulatory micro RNA in some cases) ->
the receptors have receptor antagonists ->
also Soluble Receptors to mop up cytokines ->
there's inhibitors of cytokine signalling
Regulation of Cytokines
Induction ->
mRNA is formed (along w/ regulatory micro RNA in some cases) ->
the receptors have receptor antagonists ->
also Soluble Receptors to mop up cytokines ->
there's inhibitors of cytokine signalling
Micro RNA
Causes degradation of mRNA
As forms a protein complex - RISC complex
Micro RNA
Causes degradation of mRNA
As forms a protein complex - RISC complex
Cytokine Signalling is supressed through
SOCS - inhibits the JAK/STAT pathway
Cytokine Signalling is supressed through
SOCS - inhibits the JAK/STAT pathway
Order of regulation of Cytokines
DNA Level - Induction/Inhibition
Post transcription - miR
Protein Level - Maturation/Secretion/Soluble Receptors
Signalling Level - Anatagonists/Receptors/Inhibitors
Order of regulation of Cytokines
DNA Level - Induction/Inhibition
Post transcription - miR
Protein Level - Maturation/Secretion/Soluble Receptors
Signalling Level - Anatagonists/Receptors/Inhibitors
Disturbed Cytokines in Autoimmune?
R.A
Psoriatic Arthritis
Disturbed Cytokines in Autoimmune?
R.A
Psoriatic Arthritis
Disturbed Cytokines in Sepsis?
"Massive Increase in: TNF
Disturbed Cytokines in Sepsis?
"Massive Increase in: TNF
Disturbed Cytokines in Tumours?
Cervical and Bladder get Increase IL-6
Disturbed Cytokines in Tumours?
Cervical and Bladder get Increase IL-6
Chemokines are
Chemoattractant Cytokines
'Secreted Regulators of Leukocyte Homing + Function'
Chemokines are
Chemoattractant Cytokines
'Secreted Regulators of Leukocyte Homing + Function'
Chemokines are for
Development
Blood Production
Leucocyte Trafficking
Inflammation
Chemokines are for
Development
Blood Production
Leucocyte Trafficking
Inflammation
What are integrins?
Heterodimers - alpha and beta subunits
Attach cells to surface
Help cells to stop
Help cells to move
What are integrins?
Heterodimers - alpha and beta subunits
Attach cells to surface
Help cells to stop
Help cells to move
Chemokines in inflammation
Inducible Chemokines
Chemokines in inflammation
Inducible Chemokines
Chemokines in homeostasis
Constitutive Chemokines
Chemokines in homeostasis
Constitutive Chemokines
How many chemokines?
~45
How many chemokines?
~45
Different forms of chemokines
alpha
beta
gamma
delta
Different forms of chemokines
alpha
beta
gamma
delta
Amount of each type
beta - 28
alpha - 16
gamma - 1
delta - 1
Amount of each type
beta - 28
alpha - 16
gamma - 1
delta - 1
Chemokine receptors - number and structure
~19 receptors and 3 atypical receptors
Structure = 7-TM chemokine receptors
Chemokine receptors - number and structure
~19 receptors and 3 atypical receptors
Structure = 7-TM chemokine receptors
Tissue Address is made of?
Selectins
Chemokines
Integrins
Tissue Address is made of?
Selectins
Chemokines
Integrins