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224 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Administrator
Administrator of the EPA
ACT
Federal Water Pollution Control Act or the Clean Water Act as amended.
Process Wastewater
Any water, which during manufacturing or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, by-product, or waste product.
Sludge (Bio-solids)
The settleable solid intentionally separated from liquid wastestreams during treatment, and the unintentional accumulation of solids in tanks and reservoirs associated with production and manufacturing.
Representative Sample
A sample from a wastestream that is as nearly identical in composition to that in the larger volume of wastewater being discharged. Not necessarily final effluent.
Receiving Water
A stream, lake, river, ocean, or other surface or groundwater into which treated or untreated wastewater is discharged.
POTW
Publicly Owned Treatment Works. A sewage (or wastewater) treatment works which is owned by a state, municipality, city, town, special sewer district or other publicly owned or financed entirely, as opposed to a privately owned treatment facility.
Pretreatment
The reduction in the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alternation of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to, or in lieu of, introducing those pollutants into the POTW.
Physical Treatment Process
Physical waste treatment processes include racks, screens, comminutors, clarifiers (sedimentation and flotation), and filtration, which through physical actions, removes pollutants from the wastewater.
pH
Is the expression of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution. The measurement indicates an acid solution when the pH is less than 7 and an alkaline solution when the pH is greater than 7. The pH reflects the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of the aqueous solution.
Daily Maximum
The average of all grab samples taken during any given calendar day. A composite sample, by definition, becomes the daily maximum for the calendar day in which it was taken.
Grab Sample
A sample which is taken from a wastestream without regard to the wastestream and over a period of time NOT to exceed 15 minutes.
Monthly Average-NOT 30 days
The arithmetic average of all samples taken in a calendar month for an individual pollutant parameter. They may be grab and or composite samples, but must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 136.
Influent
Wastewater or other liquid raw (untreated), partially or completely treated -- flowing INTO a reservoir, tank basin, treatment process, or treatment plant.
Effluent
Wastewater or other liquid raw (untreated), partially or completely treated -- flowing FROM a reservoir, tank basin, treatment process, or treatment plant.
Categorical Industrial User
An industrial User which is subject to a categorical standard promulgated by the U.S. EPA.
Categorical Standard
Any regulation containing pollutant discharge limits promulgated by the EPA in accordance with sections of the Clean Water Act which apply to a specific category of users and which appear in the 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N, Parts 405-471.
COMBINED WASTESTREAM FORMULA
A means of deriving alternative categorical discharge limits in situations where process effluent is mixed with wastewater other than those generated by the regulated process prior to treatment.
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR)
A publication of the United States government which contains all of the finalized federal regulations. Environmental Regs are found in volume 40 of the CFR and General Pretreatment in 40 CFR 403.
Chemical Treatment Process
A waste treatment process which involves the addition of chemicals to achieve a desired level of effluent quality.
Biological Treatment
A waste treatment process which bacterial and other microorganisms break down complex materials into simple, nontoxic, more stable compounds.
Batch Process
A treatment or manufacturing process in which a tank or reactor is filled, the wastewater is held or the chemical solution is prepared, and the tank is emptied, resulting in a discrete discharge to the sewer. The process is generally repeated.
POINT SOURCE
Any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged.
NEW SOURCE
Any building, structure, facility or insulation from which there is or may be the discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commended after the publication of proposed regulation prescribing a standard of performance. (Aug 1, 1982 rule)
Conventional Pollutants
Conventional Pollutants designated pursuant to the ACT: BOD, Fecal Coliform, Oil & Grease, TSS, and pH
BOD5
Five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand-Most Common.
COD
Chemical Oxygen Demand
RCRA
Resources Conservation & Recovery Act
Goals of RCRA
Protect public health and the environment from hazardous and other wastes and to protect and preserve natural resources through programs of resource recovery, including production of energy from waste.
Hazardous Waste Control Law
Goals of HWCL: protect public health and the environment from hazardous waste and to promote the use of alternative technology for handling hazardous wastes.
CRADLE TO GRAVE
The Hazardous Waste Control law and RCRA both create, Cradle to Grave, control system-responsibility for wastes FOREVER regardless if you hire someone else to dispose. Identification of hazardous waste generators. Compliance Standards. Treatment, storage, and disposal facility permit standards. Tracking system to trace the hazardous waste from the point of generation to it's ultimate disposal or treatment.
Non-contact Cooling Water
Water used for cooling which does not come into contact with any raw material, intermediate product, waste product or finished product.
BLOWDOWN
The minimum discharge of recalculated water for the purpose of discharging materials contained in the water, the further buildup of which would cause concentrations in amounts exceeding limits established by best engineering practices, i.e. cooling towers, boilers.
Liquid storage containment area should be...
The containment system must have a capacity to contain 10% of the volume of the stored material or the volume of the single largest container, which ever is greater.
When a Parshall flume is submerged due to high water elevations downstream, the velocity through the flume is:
Decreased
Toxic Gases that may be encountered by an Inspector?
Most Common: Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Chlorine (CL2).
Precoat Operations
Frequently used with vacuum filters for sludge dewatering of metal hydroxides to obtain a higher solids yield. (metal waste streams).
Clean Water Act Objective?
The thrust of the Act regarding Industrial waste dischargers to Municipal Sewerage Systems is to emphasize control of discharges of Toxic Substances.
Broad Crested Weir
A good flow measurement device for sewers where down steam water may rise or backup and flood out the weir.
THE OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE FOR BACTERIA IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES
30 TO 37 degree C
The organic portion of Suspended Solids is determined by volatilizing the sample at what temperature?
550 degrees C
THE BUCKET AND STOPWATCH FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE USING A FIVE GALLON BUCKET IS A FAIRLY RELIABLE AND ACCURATE METHOD FOR FLOWS UP TO AND INCLUDING?
30 gpm
DETERMINING FLOW RATES BY THE BUCKET AND STOPWATCH TECHNIQUE, THE BUCKET USED SHOULD BE LARGE ENOUGH SUCH THAT IT TAKES HOW MANY SECONDS OR LONGER TO FILL?
10 or more seconds
THE UNIT OF CONCENTRATION FREQUENTLY USED TO EXPRESS LOW LEVELS OF RADIOACTIVITY IN WASTEWATER IS?
Picocuries per liter
ORIFICE FLOW METER HEAD LOSS?
Has a large head loss.
NAPPE
In reference to water flowing over a weir, the term NAPPE refers to the sheet or curtain of water overflowing the weir. (jungle cruise example)
IN A NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED SET OF DATA, THE PARAMETER WILL LIE WITHIN ONE STANDARD DEVIATION UNIT OF THE MEAN APPROXIMATELY WHAT PERCENTAGE OF THE TIME?
68%
Industrial wastewater discharges that have large pH buffering capacity due to bicarbonates, phosphates, silicates, and other materials, generally are desirable at municipal wastewater treatment plants employing?
Biological Nitrification.
For reasonably accurate and meaningful flow measurement to be made using a weir, the head should be?
At least 0.1 ft. to keep the nappe from cling to the crest.
A mechanical, float activated flow meter has, since the day it was put into service, always produced flow charts having a BROAD INK BAND rather than a THIN LINE. Several pens have been tried, all the same effect. What's the most likely source of the problem?
The float in the wet well is not designed to dampen out surges, i.e. lift stations and wet wells.
The proper location to measure the water surface elevation in a Parshall flume is?
Upstream of the throat, two-thirds of the length of the converging section.
The condition of SUBMERGENCE in a Parshall flume is evidenced by?
The existence of a ripple or wave just downstream from the end of the throat.
The bottom of a weir (notch or crest) should be at what minimum distance above the bottom of the channel?
No less than twice the maximum expected head.
Velocity--The average velocity of all liquid in a stream is usually __% of the surface velocity of the stream.
85%
Which weirs are more suitable for low flow measurements?
V-Notch weirs ARE generally more suitable for low flow measurements than rectangular weirs.
Describe Parshall Flumes
Parshall flumes are generally self-cleaning, flow measuring devices and therefore are ideal for flows with high suspended solids.
Conductivity--Electrical conductivity measurements are sensitive to?
Temperature changes.
Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) Measurement?
Used for control of cyanide destruct system, measures the ratio of the concentrations of oxidized and reduced forms of cyanide.
Sludge Dewatering
Vacuum filters (rotary-drum & vacuum-belt), Pressure filters, Compression filters, and Centrifuges.
Cyanide Holding Time--The maximum holding time for a sample preserved by addition of sodium hydroxide to pH of greater than 12.0 that is to be analyzed for cyanide is?
14 days
Phenolics
Phenolics can cause taste and odor problems in wastewaters, especially after treatment which includes chlorination.
Refractory
Refractory materials in wastewater generally refer to those that are resistant to biodegration.
Rinse
Countercurrent rinse tanks used in the metal finishing industry use less water than the same number of concurrent rise tanks.
Describe the rinse ratio in metal plating industry?
In the metal plating industry, the term Rinse Ratio refers to the ratio of rinse water volumetric flow rate to the drag-out volumetric flow rate.
Fruit and Vegetable-What is most of the BOD associated with?
Wastewater in the fruit and vegetable industry generally has most of the BOD associated with dissolved organic matter.
Fruit and Vegetable-Process wastewater will tend to be acidic unless ____?
Process wastewater will tend to be acidic unless treated with caustic or another alkaline substance.
Quantity of organics from fruits and vegetables leached into transport or fluming waters is a function of ____?
The quantity of organics leached from fruit and vegetables into transport or fluming waters at processing plants is a function of duration of immersion and partial size of the food.
Fruit and Vegetable-What will cause a decrease in wastewater flow and BOD generation per ton of fruit or vegetable processed?
Generally, both the wastewater flow and BOD generation per ton of fruit or vegetable processed decreases as a processing plant usage increases to the design capacity.
Common technologies to recover chemicals from rinse water?
Ion exchange, Evaporation, Reverse osmosis, Electrodialysis
Sewer Plug
After installing a pneumatic sewer plug into the end of a sewer pipe in a manhole, personnel should exit the manhole and stand clear of the top of the manhole while it is being inflated to the recommended pressure. GET OUT OF THE WAY!!!
Prohibited Discharges
Per National Pretreatment Standards: Pass Through and/or Interference
Specific Prohibitions-1
Fire or Explosion
Specific Prohibitions-2
"Heat in amounts that will inhibit biological activity at the POTW resulting in interference
Specific Prohibitions-3
Pollutants which result in the presence of toxic vapors, or fumes within the POTW in quantities that cause acute water health and safety problems.
PASS THROUGH
A discharge which exits the POTW into water of the United States in quantities or concentrations which alone, or in conjunction with a discharge from another source, is in violation of an any requirement of the POTW's NPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation).
INTERFERENCE
Means a discharge that both: Inhibits or disrupts the POTW, its treatment process or operation, or its sludge processing or disposal; and therefore causes an NPDES permit violation
NPDES PERMIT
A permit issued to a POTW pursuant to Section 402 of the ACT, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Issued to any discharger to the waters of the United States
INDUSTRIAL USER
Source of indirect discharge (they generally discharge to a POTW)
SIGNIFICANT INDUSTRIAL USER-1
All Industrial users subject to Categorical Pretreatment Standards. Any industrial user that: discharges an average of 25,000 gpd, or process wastewater to a POTW, or contributes a process wastestream that makes up 5% or more of the average dry weather hydraulic or organic capacity of the POTW (local gpd could be lower for smaller plants)
SIGNIFICANT INDUSTRIAL USER-2
Designated as such by the control authority, on the basis that the industrial user has the reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operations or for causing a violation of any pretreatment standard or requirement.
CONTROL AUTHORITY
"The jurisdictional entity which oversees the implementation of the National Pretreatment Program at the local level
APPROVED PRETREATMENT PROGRAM
A program administered by a POTW that meets the criteria established in 40 CRF 403 and has been approved by the regional administrator or state director in accordance with these regulations.
APPROVAL AUTHORITY
The director in an NPDES State with an approved State Pretreatment program. The approval comes from the EPA.
BLANKS, FOR QC/QA
Bottle, Equipment, Field, method, Sample Preservation
CHAIN OF CUSTODY
A legal record of each person who had possession of an environmental sample from the person who collection the sample to the person who analyzed the sample in the laboratory and to the person who witnessed the disposal of the sample.
Slug Control Plan--If the Control Authority decides that a Slug Control Plan is needed, the plan shall contain at a minimum?
Description of discharge practices, including batch discharges description of stored chemicals
Slug Control Plan-Further contents?
Procedures for immediately notifying the POTW of slug discharges, including any discharge that would violate any regulation, including any prohibited, with procedures for following up written notification within 5 days. If necessary, procedures to prevent adverse impact from accidental spills.
Slug Control Plan-Procedures that may be included to reduce impact?
Inspection and maintenance of storage areas, Handling and transfer of material, Loading and unloading operations.
Slug Control Plan-Additional contents?
Worker training, Bldg containment structures or equipment, Emergency response, Measures for containing toxic organic pollutants, Controlling plant site run-off
Director
The chief administrative officer of the state or interstate water pollution control agency with an NPDES permit program approved pursuant to Section 402 (b) of the ACT and an approved State pretreatment program.
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-1
Development & Implementation by POTW
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-2
National Pretreatment Standards specifying quantities or concentrations of pollutant properties which may be discharged to a POTW by existing or new source industrial users in specific industrial subcategories will be established as separate regulation under the appropriate subpart of 40 CFR. These standards, unless specifically noted otherwise, shall be in addition to all applicable pretreatment standards and requirements set forth in this part.
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-3
Must be based on Legal Authority and include the following procedures: Deny or condition new or increased contributions. Require compliance with applicable Pretreatment Standards
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-4
Control, through permit or control mechanisms, and contain at a minimum the following-Statement of duration (in no case more than 5 yrs) Statement of non-transferability without minimum notification to the POTW and a copy of the control mechanism to the new owner
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-5
Effluent limits based on applicable pretreatment standards. Self-monitoring, sampling, reporting, notification and record keeping requirements, including identification of pollutants to be monitored, sampling locations, frequency and sampling type. Statement of applicable civil and criminal penalties for violations.
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-6
At a minimum the POTW shall develop procedures to: Identify and locate all possible industrial users; Identify the character and volume of pollutants contributed to the POTW; and Notify Industrial Users of applicable Pretreatment Standards
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-7
Receive and analyze self-monitoring reports submitted by the Industrial User. Randomly sample and analyze effluent from Industrial Users. Conduct surveillance activities in order to identify occasional and continuing non-compliance with pretreatment standards.
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-8
Evaluate, at least once every two years, whether each Significant Industrial User needs a plan to control slug discharge. Investigate instances of noncompliance. Comply with public participation requirements of 40 CFR 25 in the enforcement of National Pretreatment Standards
PRETREATMENT PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-9
Annual public notification, in the largest daily newspaper published in the municipality in which the POTW is located, of Industrial Users which, at any time during the previous 12 months were in significant non-compliance with applicable pretreatment requirements.
SIGNIFICANT NONCOMPLIANCE-An Industrial User is in Significant Noncompliance if its violation is chronic. Describe Chronic.
Chronic Violation of wastewater discharge limits, defined here as those which 66% or more of all of the measurements taken during a 6 month period exceed the daily maximum limit or the average limit for the pollutant parameter.
SIGNIFICANT NONCOMPLIANCE-Technical Review Criteria (TRC)
Violations, defined here as those in which 33% or more of all of the measurements for each pollutant parameter taken during a 6 month period equal or exceed the product of the daily maximum limit or average limit multiplied by the applicable TRC (TRC = 1.4 for BOD, TSS fat, Oil & Grease, and 1.2 for other pollutants except for pH).
SIGNIFICANT NONCOMPLIANCE-3
Any other violation of a pretreatment effluent that the Control Authority determines has caused, alone or in combination with other discharges, interference or pass through (including endangering the health of POTW personnel or the public).
SIGNIFICANT NONCOMPLIANCE-4
Any other discharge of a pollutant that has caused imminent endangerment to human health, welfare or to the environment or has resulted in the POTW's exercise of it's emergency authority to halt or prevent such discharge.
SIGNIFICANT NONCOMPLIANCE-5
Failure to meet, within 90 days after the scheduled date, a compliance schedule milestone contained in a local control mechanism or enforcement order for starting construction, completing construction, or attaining final compliance.
SIGNIFICANT NONCOMPLIANCE-6
Failure to provide, within 45 days after the due date, required reports such as baseline monitoring reports, and reports on compliance with compliance schedules. Failure to accurately report noncompliance.
SIGNIFICANT NONCOMPLIANCE-7
Any other violation or group of violations which the Control Authority determines will adversely affect the operation or implementation of the local pretreatment program.
Two Main Parts to Each Accident
First is an unsafe condition; The other is an unsafe act
USE OF ROPES TO LIFT EQUIPMENT
Any rope used to lift equipment shall not be loaded above its safe working load limit. The following are safe working load limits for several commonly used sizes of 3 STRAND MANILA ROPE. 1/2 inch diameter-Max Safe Load NO MORE THAN 530 lbs
Six Gases Encountered on the Job
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Methane (CH4) Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Ammonia (NH3) Chlorine (CL2) (may ask for 5 gases, HCN in industry and CL2 at treatment plants).
Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Colorless, odorless, heavier than air, no flammability or explosiveness, threshold level is 35 ppm; 200 ppm headache; 1000 ppm may result in death.
Characteristics of Methane (NH3)
Colorless with sharp urine-like odor, lighter then air, explosive at 15%; toxic limit 0.01%.
Characteristics of Chlorine (Cl2)
Greenish/yellow gas with penetrating odor, heavier than air, explosive, extremely toxic, very small % causes severe coughing; high % kills
EXCURSION EXPOSURE
Ammonia-not applicable; Chlorine--2 ppm; Hydrogen Sulfide--20 ppm; All Must be Carefully Monitored.
Subjective Olfactory Responses to Hydrogen Sulfide
0.02 ppm: no odor; 0.13 ppm: minimal perceptible odor; 0.77 ppm: faint but readily perceptible odor; 4.60 ppm: easily detectable, moderate odor; 27.0 ppm: strong, unpleasant, but not intolerable odor; QUICKLY DESTROYS SENSE OF SMELL SO YOU CAN'T DETECT!!!!
Maximum Concentrations of Chlorine and Hydrogen Sulfide-NOT TO BE EXCEEDED FOR ANY LENGTH UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES!
Chlorine -- 3 ppm; Hydrogen Sulfide--50 ppm
Maximum Exposure Time Above Excursion Exposures
Chlorine--5 minutes; every 8 hours; Hydrogen Sulfide--10 minutes; every 8 hours
Dangerous Air Contamination. An atmosphere presenting a threat of causing death, injury, acute illness, or disablement due to:
Flammable gases or vapors at a concentration greater than 20% of their lower explosive (lower flammable) limit. Combustible particles at a concentration greater than 20% of the minimum explosive concentration of the particulate. Any toxic substances at an atmosphere concentration immediately hazardous to life or health.
Oxygen Deficiency
Any atmosphere containing oxygen at a concentration less than 19.5% by volume is considered deficient. EVACUATE!
Note: normal atmospheric oxygen content is 20.9% by volume
Permissible Exposure Limits
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has established the threshold limit value of 10 ppm as a time weighted average concentration for a 7 to 8 hour workday and a 40 hour workweek. Fluctuations above this concentration should not exceed 20 ppm in order to not develop conjunctivitis.
CONFINED SPACE
Is large enough and configured such that an employee can bodily enter and perform work; Has limited openings for entry and exit; Is not designed or continuous employee occupancy.
Physiological Responses to H2S-1
10 ppm: beginning eye irritation; 10-100 ppm: slight irritation after 1 hour of exposure; greater than 100 ppm: coughing, eye irritation, loss of sense of smell after 2-15 minutes; altered respiration, pain in eyes, and drowsiness after 15-30 minutes, followed by throat irritation after 1 hour; several hours exposure results in gradual increased severity of these symptoms and death may occur with the next 48 hours.
Physiological Responses to H2S-2
200-300 ppm: marked conjunctivitis and respiratory tract irritation after 1 hour exposure; 500-700 ppm: loss of consciousness; death possible in 30 minutes to 1 hour; 1000-2000 ppm: unconsciousness at once, early cessation of respiration, death in few minutes; death may occur even if individual is removed to fresh air at once.
How do you test effectiveness of traffic delineators and barricades?
Make several test drive approaches to the site.
How far should barricades and delineators used for traffic control extend?
Far enough to permit gradual and easy channeling away from the work area.
What should be worn by any person working in a street as a flagman or traffic guide to direct traffic around a work site?
Reflective vest
Common locations/conditions where Hydrogen Sulfide is Likely
Deep manholes, in slow moving sewers, in sewers flowing full, near stoppages, poorly ventilated structures, wet pits, siphons, the discharge location from a lift station
Sewer structures where oxygen deficiency is very likely to occur?
Deep manholes; Poorly ventilated structures; Wet pit siphons.
3 TESTS THAT MUST BE MADE ON CONFINED SPACE ATMOSPHERE PRIOR TO ENTRY
Oxygen deficiency; Toxic Gases; Combustible Gases
Each Industrial Waste Inspector should carry one in vehicle for emergencies.
First Aid Kit
The single greatest frequency of accidents occur when?
Vehicle is backing up!
Name a traffic delineator that may be used as a SUPPLEMENT to barricades by placing between barricades to guide motorists.
Cones
The first warning device a motorist sees should be at what height.
Eye level
The greatest single cause of job related injuries among sewer maintenance, investigation, and inspection personnel in the US is?
Lifting and Handling
SIU must be inspected how frequently?
Annually
What should an inspector do before going out to inspect a permittee?
Review file
What should you look for in files before inspecting permittee?
Applications, previous inspection notes, site and process flow diagrams, compliance schedules, plans and hazardous storage areas, analytical data.
Inspection Questionnaire should include:
General facility information, process areas, facility changes, wastewater generation, pretreatment, hazardous waste management, chemical/waste storage areas, facility plans, sampling procedures, records review.
Operations and Sources of Discharge
Restrooms/showers, air pollution control, non-contact cooling water, backwash, boilers, cafeteria/break room contract cooling water, equipment wash-down, fleet maintenance, in-product, lab, maintenance shop devices, cooling tower bleed off, off spec/out of date/returned product or raw materials, pump sealant water, remediated groundwater, stormwater, tank bottoms.
Personal Protective Equipment during Inspections?
Glasses, shoes, gloves, hairnet, ear plugs, coveralls.
Walk-Through-look--see--take note of...
Housekeeping, labels and containment, dilution sources, piping configurations, monitoring point locations/accessibility, condition of monitoring point & pretreatment equipment, INSPECT RECORDS
Walk Through Inspection--What do you do before leaving?
Comment on housekeeping and/or compliance issues; Identify potential P2 opportunities; Allow IU to ask questions.
When to prepare inspection report and follow-up?
Promptly--ASAP--Upon return to office!
Purpose of POTW Monitoring
Verify compliance status; Maintain up-to-date information; Support enforcement activities; Verify correction of problem; Identify source problem discharges; Provide user charge data.
Types of POTW Monitoring
Scheduled; Unscheduled (surprise); Demand.
40 CFR Part 136
Collection containers; Preservatives; Holding times; Preferred sample type; Approved methods.
Lists fruits or vegetables that have a strong tendency to leach BOD into waters used for transporting these commodities within a processing plant.
Asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cauliflower, mushrooms, okra, pears, potatoes, and soft squash.
List fruits or vegetables that have little tendency to leach BOD into waters used for transporting these commodities within a processing plant.
Berries, grapes, pickles, pineapples, plums, pumpkins, and sauerkraut.
Types of washing methods commonly used in vegetable and fruit processing plants.
Sprayers positioned over the belts, elevators or conveyors; flood-type washers, consisting of immersion or soak tanks; rotary or reel washers, consisting of sprayers situated within a perforated metal or screen cylinder; brush washers, consisting of revolving brushes, which scour the exposed surface.
Beneficial effects of the continuous application of chlorine to process waters in canning plants.
Bacteria counts are reduced;
Slime formation is prevented;
odors are avoided; Less time is required for cleanup.
Types of peelers used in fruit and vegetable processing plants, (with each is type of food that is commonly used by each).
Steam peelers--carrots, and other root vegetables; Mechanical peelers, such as knives for fruits; Abrasive peelers-for root crops; Chemical peelers-for fruits and vegetables; Dry-Caustic peelers-for potatoes.
What is the purpose of blanching vegetables?
Blanching is a process to preserve vegetables for long-term storage by treatment with hot water or steam to deactivate enzymes and remove tissue gases. Vegetables so treated can then be stored by freezing, dehydration, or canning.
WHAT IS INVOLVED WITH DRY PEELING TOMATOES
Immersion of tomatoes in a hot, concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide for only a few seconds and then use of rotating rubber discs and water sprays to do the actual peeling.
What pH level are fluming waters in a plant processing peaches and/or apples kept at? How and why?
Low pH values achieved by acid addition to control bacterial growth.
Mechanical conveyor belts used in fruit processing plants are usually cleaned how?
Continuously with spray nozzles by water having an approximate 5 mg/L chlorine residual.
THE POUNDS OF BOD PRODUCED AND DISCHARGED IN WASTEWATER PER TON OF VEGETABLE PROCESSED IS WITHIN A RANGE OF:
10.0-100.0
To effectively reduce the wastewater strength at a tomato processing facility, the length of time that the tomato wastes remain in contact with water should be:
Minimized.
The COD test as a measure of the potential biodegradation of an organic waste would generally be suitable for most fruit and vegetable wastewaters with 2 notable exceptions.
With wastewater from sauerkraut processing and pickle brines.
DRY CAUSTIC PEELING CAN RESULT IN AN ______________ VOLUME OF WASTEWATER AND BOD DISCHARGED BY A VEGETABLE PROCESSOR?
INCREASED
FOR SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT BY ACTIVATED SLUDGE, WASTEWATER FROM FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES SHOULD HAVE A BOD TO TOTAL NITROGEN TO TOTAL PHOSPHORUS RATION OF:
100:5:1
Advantages that lime has over caustic soda as a precipitating agent for heavy metals treatment?
Lower cost per unit neutralizing capacity; Sludge settles more rapidly; Sludge dewaters more rapidly; Calcium will break up some chelates.
Disadvantages that lime has over caustic soda as a precipitating agent for heavy metals treatment?
Need more expensive reagent feed system; Takes longer to react in the wastewater; Produces more sludge than caustic soda.
THE TWO HEAVY METALS COMMONLY FOUND IN METAL PLATING WASTES THAT RE NOT PRECIPITATED AS A METAL SULFIDE ARE?
TRIVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRIVALENT IRON
For optimum reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium by use of sulfur dioxide, the pH must be maintained between?
2 and 3
DRAG-OUT OF PLATING SOLUTIONS, (by parts being plated) CAN OFTEN REPRESENT AS MUCH AS ___% OF THE PLATING SOLUTION CONSUMED.
90%
A CONTRACTED WEIR THAT HAS A CRESTED WIDTH NARROWER THAN THE CHANNEL ACROSS WHICH IT IS INSTALLED PRODUCES A ______IN THE STREAM OF WATER AS IT LEAVES THE NOTCH OR CREST?
CONTRACTION
IN ORDER FOR WEIRS TO BE USED EFFECTIVELY FOR WASTEWATER FLOW MEASUREMENTS, THERE SHOULD BE AN AVAILABLE FALL OR HEAD LOSS IN THE CHANNEL OF HOW MANY INCHES?
AT A MINIMUM, 6 INCHES OR MORE
UNDER THE BEST CONDITIONS, WASTEWATER FLOW MEASUREMENTS USING WEIRS OR FLUMES CAN BE EXPECTED TO BE AS MUCH ___% IN ERROR?
3.0 TO 5.0 % IN ERROR
What common problem exists for almost all wastewater flow measurement applications using a weir?
The space just upstream of the weir may fill with sludge and grit, thus giving erroneous discharge values.
Contracted Weir ends are located and produce?
"The weir ends are at a distance at least twice the maximum head on the weir from the side of the channel producing a box-like opening
Suppressed Weir?
The weir extends across the entire width of the channel. The nappe does not contract from the width of the channel. Another term: weir without end contractions. Special precautions usually are necessary to obtain adequate aeration of the nappe of a suppressed weir. This is often accomplished by placing vents under the nappe on both sides of the weir box.
FOR REASONABLY ACCURATE AND MEANINGFUL FLOW MEASUREMENTS TO BE MADE USING A WEIR, THE UPSTREAM HEAD SHOULD BE?
0.1 FOOT
40 CFR 403.8(f)(1)(v)
Sampling Regulations: Carryout all inspections, surveillance and monitoring procedures necessary to determine, independent of information supplied by the industrial user, compliance or noncompliance with applicable Pretreatment Standards and requirements.
40 CFR 403.8 (f)(2)(v)
Randomly sample from Industrial Users and conduct surveillance and monitoring procedures. Inspect and sample the effluent from each Significant Industrial User at least once a year.
40 CFR 403.12 (g)(5)
If an Industrial User monitors any pollutant more frequently than required by the Control Authority, they must report the results; IF they follow the procedures within 40 CFR 136
40 CFR 403.12 (g)(2)
"If sampling performed by an IU indicates a violation, the IU shall notify the Control Authority within 24 hours of becoming aware of the violation.
40 CFR 403.12 (g)(1)
This sampling and analysis may be performed by the CA in lieu of the IU. Where the CA performs the required S & A, the IU will not be required to submit the compliance certification. Where the CA performs the required flow data, S & A, the IU will not be required to submit the report.
40 CFR 403.12 (f)(2)(vi)
Sampling taking and analysis and the collection of other information shall be performed with sufficient care to produce evidence admissible in enforcement proceedings or in judicial action.
40 CFR 403.12 (b)(5)(iii) A minimum of 4 grab samples must be used for?
Cyanide, pH, Oil & Grease, Total Phenols, Sulfide, and Volatile Organics
40 CFR 403.12 (b)(5)(iii) Composite samples must be obtained through flow proportional composite sampling techniques wherever feasible for?
All other pollutants-NOT Cyanide, pH, Oil & Grease, Total Phenols, Sulfide, and Volatile Organics. CA may waive flow proportional composite sampling for an IU that demonstrates that is infeasible.
40 CFR 403.12 (b)(5)(vi) How should sampling and analysis be performed?
In accordance with the techniques prescribed in 40 CFR 136 and amendments thereto.
40 CFR 403.12 (b)(5)(iv) How many representative samples need to be taken to compile the data necessary to comply with the requirement of this paragraph?
1 representative sample (read CFR paragraph)
40 CFR 403.12(b)(5)(v) Where should samples be taken?
Immediately downstream from pretreatment facilities if such location exists, or downstream from the regulated process if non exists.
40 CFR 403.12(b)(5)(v) What should you do if other wastestreams are mixed with the regulated wastewater prior to sampling?
The user should measure flows and concentrations necessary to allow the use of the combined wastestream formula.
40 CFR 403.12(b)(5)(vii) When can the CA allow the submission of a baseline report which utilizes only historical data?
As long as the data provides information sufficient to determine the need for pretreatment measures.
40 CFR 403.12 (b)(5)(viii) What should the baseline report indicate?
Time, date and place of sampling and methods of analysis, and shall certify it's representative of normal work cycles and expected pollutants discharged to the POTW.
Objectives of Monitoring Program
To sample the discharge of non-domestic users; To analyze the samples for pollutants of interest; To evaluate the results for compliance; To conduct surveillance and inspections to identify non-compliance.
WHAT 4 FACTORS MUST BE ESTABLISHED IN EVERY SAMPLING PROGRAM
Number of samples, sampling frequencies, parameters to be measured, and locations
What specific occurrences might call for demand monitoring?
Explosive, corrosive, toxic or hazardous material in the sewer system. Violation of POTW permit requirements. Catastrophe at an industrial site. Operation difficulties with manufacturing processes or pretreatment equipment at an industrial site. Reported spill.
Essential parts of any laboratory quality control methodology?
Periodic calibration of equipment; Periodic checks on shelf life of chemicals used in analysis; Periodic analysis of known samples to test the accuracy of analytical techniques; Replicate analysis by splitting samples with industrial contributors or with independent labs to confirm analytic findings.
What should Heavy Metal samples commonly be preserved with?
Nitric Acid
What is a sample collected on a one time basis called?
Grab, or Discrete sample
A sample bottle must be filled completely with no air space remaining when what analysis are being made on a sample?
Sulfide, Ammonia, pH, Residual Chlorine, and Volatile Organics
BOD HOLDING TIME After sample collection is completed, a sample to be analyzed for BOD should be held at 4 deg C for a maximum of how many hours prior to starting the analysis?
Holding time is 48 hours. The time starts when the first drip is collected. Standard Methods. 24 hours if it is a 24 hour composite.
WHAT IS THE PROPER PRESERVATION METHOD FOR A SAMPLE TO BE ANALYZED FOR PHENOLICS?
Add copper sulfate, lower the pH to less than 4.0 using phosphoric acid, and refrigerate at 4 degrees C
What can happen if composite sampling is not done at a very high frequency?
Can lead to significant errors in characterizing industrial waste processes having slug dumps.
WHAT SHOULD BE ON A SAMPLE LABEL?
Location of sample collection; date and time of collection; indication of grab or composite sample with appropriate time and volume; info that may change before analyses are made (i.e. pH & temp); name of party collecting the sample; tests to done on the water collected
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE LEAST IMPORTANT FACTOR TO BE CONSIDERED IN SELECTING AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER SAMPLING LOCATION?
The location is always available for immediate use by the industrial waste inspector.
Steps to set up an in-plant industrial waste survey that include sample collection and analysis are:
Draw a map of the plant, including water supply lines and wastewater flows; select appropriate methods of flow measuring and install necessary devices; select sample collection sites & establish a sampling program; determine laboratory analyses to be made; correlate production records to water flows and laboratory results.
What is the basic objective of a self-monitoring program for industrial wastewater?
To provide a characterization and understanding of the waterborne waste materials being discharged by the manufacturing process.
What are In-Situ Measurements? Provide examples.
Those tests performed in the field as the discharge is occurring, in contrast to those taken back to the laboratory for analysis. Flow measurements; determinations of pH; conductivity analysis; temperature; cyanide analysis; and sulfide analysis.
40 CFR 122.2 Definition of BMP; Best Management Practices
A schedule of activities, prohibitions of practice, maintenance procedures, and other management practices to prevent pollution of The Waters of the United States. Include treatment requirements, operating procedures, and practices to control plant site runoff, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.
What do Meat packing Facility Wastes Contain?
Proteinaceous material deaminates (changes to ammonia) to form large concentrations of ammonia.
Supervisors Concerned With?
Discipline; productivity; constructive criticism; team work assignments; delegation of duties; conflict/personality problems; employee assistance for problems effecting work.
Which is not a categorical? Dairy, Hospital, Aluminum, Printed Circuit Board
Q=
Flow
V=
Velocity
T=
Time
A=
Cross section of flow area
R=
Hydraulic radius (cross section/wetted perimeter)
S=
Slope of the hydraulic gradient
N=
Roughness coefficient
K=
Constant dependent upon time
DETENTION TIME FORMULA
Q=V/T; T=V/Q; V=Q x T
WHAT DOES THE MANNING FORMULA DETERMINE?
Flow rate based on the depth of flow, and the size, shape, slope, and roughness of the channel.
WHAT IS THE MANNING FORMULA?
nQ= K A R 2/3 S 1/2
What happens to PHENOLS in activate sludge?
Biodegradable in activated sludge
40 CFR 403.5(a)
General Prohibitions. Pass-through Interference
40 CFR 403.5(b)
Specific Prohibitions. Explosion Hazard; corrosive (pH less than 5); cause of obstruction; any pollutant at a flow rate and/or concentration to cause interference with POTW; heat enough to inhibit (over 104 f AT POTW; petroleum oil, nonbiodegradable cutting oil, or any oil product that will cause interference or pass through; pollutants resulting in toxic gas vapors or fumes in the POTW that may cause worker health and safety problem; any trucked or hauled pollutants, except at discharge points designated by POTW
FIRST RESPONSE
Evaluate the situation as quickly as possible without endangering yourself; remain at a safe distance; make notification; control public access to the incident area; assess immediate remedial action; implement immediately if possible; set up command center with a line of communication; evaluate the situation as it impacts the POTW.
FIRST RESPONSE EVALUATION
Location of problem or affected area; estimate volume and characteristics of material; estimate potential harm (people, property, or environment); assess rescue needs; control area; evacuate as needed.
WHAT ARE LEAD ACETATE STRIPS USED FOR?
Measure H2S
HOW DO BACTERIA REPRODUCE AND SURVIVE?
Anaerobically and aerobically.
HOW MANY MINUTES SHOULD ELAPSE BETWEEN COMPLETE CYCLES OF AIR IN A CONFINED SPACE?
Depends on size, ventilation, and contents.
WHAT Ph TO CONVERT CYANIDE TO CYANATE?
2 step process. Raise to pH 12; Add an oxidizer such as chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite to reduce cyanide to harmless cyanate.