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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mitral regurg
holosystolic high pitched blowing murmur
loudest at apex; often radiates to L axilla
aortic stenosis
cres/decres systolic ejection murmur following ejection click. LV >> aortic pressure during systole; radiates to carotids, apex
heard best in 2-3rd right interspace close to sternum
VSD
holosystolic murmur best heard along L lower sternal border and generally radiates to R lower sternal border
may be best heard at 4-6 L intercostal spaces
mitral prolapse
late systolic murmur with midsystolic click. most frequent valvular lesion
aortic regurg
immediate high pitched blwoing diastolic murmur; wide pulse pressure
mitral stenosis
follows opening snap; delayed rumbling late diastolic murmur. LA >> LV pressure during diastole
tricuspid stenosis
gets louder with inspiration
PDA
continuous machine like murmur
loudest at S2
syphillis
aortic regurg or aortic stenosis
endocarditis
mitral regurg or mitral stenosis
breathing
increases blood to R heart, decreases blood to L heart
pulmonic regurg
early diastoic decres mumur heard best along the L sternum
pulmonic stenosis
cres/decres systolic murmur best heart in 2-3rd L interspaces close to sternum
tricuspid regurg
pansystolic murmur best heard along the L lower sternal border and generally radiates to right lower sternal border
hear at 4-6 IC spaces
losartan
fetal renal toxicity, hyperkalemia
captopril, enalapril, fosinopril
hyperkalemia, cough, angioedema, proteinuria, taste changes, hypotension, pregnancy problems (fetal renal damage), rash, increased renin, lower AT II
nitroprusside
cyanide toxicity (releases CN)
decreases preload and afterload
bitter almond taste, inhibits ETC
hydralaxine
nausea, headache, lupus-like syndrome, reflex tachycardia, angina, salt retention
decreases afterload
dilates arterioles more than veins
minoxidil
hypertrichosis, pericardial effusion, reflex tachy, angina, salt retention
nifedipine, amlodipine, felodipine, nicardipine, nisoldipine
dizziness, flushing, constipation, nausea
decreases preload only
beta blockers
impotence, asthma, bradycardia, CHF, av block, CNS effects (sedation, sleep alterations)
prazosin
1st dose ortho hypotension, dizziness, HA
guanethidine
ortho and exercise hypotension, sexual dysfunction, diarrhea
reserpine
sedation, depression, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea
hexamethonium
severe ortho hypotension, blurred vision, constipation, sexual dysfunction
methyldopa
sedation, positive coombs test
safe in pregnancy
clonidien
dry mouth, sedation, severe rebound hypertension
used in insomnia with ADHD
bradycardia esp with b blocker
centrally acting alpha ag
loop diuretics
K wasting, met alka, hypotenion, ototoxicity
loops lose Ca
hydrochlorothiazide
hypokalemia, slight hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, lassitude, hyperCa, hyperglycemia
1st line
gouty arthritis