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62 Cards in this Set

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marbury v. madison
a case which established the Supreme Court's power to strike down acts of United States Congress which were in conflict with the Constitution.
mcCulloch v. Maryland
The court stated the doctrine of implied powers, from the necessary and proper clause at Article I, section 8. To fulfill its goal, the federal government may use any means the constitution does not forbid (as opposed to only what the constitution explicitly allow, or only what can be proven to be necessary). State government may in no way hinder the legitimate action of the federal government (here, Maryland cannot levy a tax on the Bank of the United States). The court has varied in time on the extents of the implied powers, with a markedly narrower reading approximately from the 1840's to the 1930's.
Cohens vs. Virginia
U.S. Supreme Court case in which the court reaffirmed its right to review all state court judgments in cases arising under the federal Constitution or a law of the United States. The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for mandatory Supreme Court review of the final judgments of the highest court of any state in cases “where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of the United States and the decision is against its validity” or “where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of any state on the ground of its being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of its validity.”
Gibbons vs. Ogden
(1824), the United States Supreme Court ruled on March 2, 1824 that the power to regulate interstate navigation was reserved to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution .
Worcester vs. Georgia
Marshall decloared the laws of georgia dealing with cherokees unconsitutional
Barron vs. Baltimore
reach of the Bill of Rights
Dredd Scott vs. Sandford
slavery, citizenship. known as the "Dred Scott Case", was a lawsuit decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1857. It is considered by many to have been a key cause of the American Civil War, and of the later ratification of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, leading to the abolition of slavery and establishment of civil rights for freed slaves. The decision for the court was written by Chief Justice Roger Taney.
Slaughterhouse cases
freedom of employment

(1873) represented a block appeal to the United States Supreme Court testing the relatively new Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It is viewed as a pivotal case in early civil rights law, as it narrowly read the Fourteenth Amendment to protect only "privileges and immunities" conferred by virtue of national, not state, citizenship, a distinction which persists to this day.
Civil Rights Cases
(1883)[1], were a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The decision held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments.
Minor vs Hapersett
Fourteenth Amendment and the right to vote

Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874), was a United States Supreme Court case appealed from the Supreme Court of Missouri concerning the Missouri law which ordained "Every male citizen of the United States shall be entitled to vote."
Bradwell vs. Illinois
equal protection, exclusion of women from employment
Pace vs. Alabama
black & white sex = 2-7 years in the penitentiary
Plessy vs. Ferguson
segregation; “separate but equal”
Hammer vs. Dagenhart
Congressional power to regulate child labor under the Commerce Clause
Lochner vs. New York
freedom of contract, substantive due process
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture
The Court found that the Child Labor Tax Law was in violation of the Constitution
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
(1923), is a Supreme Court of the United States opinion holding that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract, as protected by the Fifth Amendment.
Butler v. US
United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936)[1], was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled unconstitutional the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act. Justice Owen Josephus Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment.
Schechter Poultry case
(1935), invalidated regulations of the poultry industry promulgated under the authority of the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933. These included price and wage fixing, as well as requirements regarding a whole shipment of chickens, including unhealthy ones.
West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
(1937) was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that upheld the constitutionality of minimum wage legislation enacted by the State of Washington, overturning an earlier decision in Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923).
Court Packing Plan
was a proposal in 1937 by United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt for power to appoint an extra Supreme Court Justice for every sitting Justice over the age of 70. This was proposed in response to the Supreme Court overturning several of his New Deal measures that proponents claim were designed to help the United States recover from the Great Depression.
Korematsu v. US
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case which asked the question, "Did the President and Congress go beyond their war powers by implementing exclusion and restricting the rights of Americans of Japanese descent?"
Brown V. Board
was a landmark case of the United States Supreme Court which explicitly outlawed de jure racial segregation of public education facilities (legal establishment of separate government-run schools for blacks and whites), ruling so on the grounds that the doctrine of "separate but equal" public education could never truly provide black Americans with facilities of the same standards available to white Americans.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case holding that the U.S. Congress could use its Commerce Clause power to fight discrimination.
Katzenbach v. McClung
the Court ruled that the government could regulate Ollie's Barbecue, which served mostly local clientele but sold food that had previously moved across state lines
Loving v. Virginia
was a case in which the United States Supreme Court declared Virginia's anti-miscegenation statute, the "Racial Integrity Act of 1924", unconstitutional, thereby ending all race-based legal restriction on marriage in the United States.
Regents of California v. Bakke
was a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States on affirmative action. It bars quota systems in college admissions but affirms the constitutionality of programs giving advantage to minorities.
Grutter v. Bollinger
is a case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School. The 5-4 decision was announced on June 23, 2003.

White girl with good sats sed she didnt get in bc she wasnt black

Gratz v. Bollinger
was a United States Supreme Court case regarding the University of Michigan undergraduate affirmative action admissions policy. In a 6–3 decision announced on June 23, 2003, the Supreme Court ruled the university's point system was too mechanistic and therefore unconstitutional.

automatic bonus to negroes is not allwed
Griswold v. Connecticut
was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. By a vote of 7-2, the Supreme Court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the "right to marital privacy."
Eisenstadt v. Baird
was an important United States Supreme Court case that established the right of unmarried people to posess contraception on the same basis as married couples and, by implication, the right of unmarried couples to engage in procreative sexual intercourse (though not, as is sometimes argued, the right of unmarried people to engage in any type of sexual intercourse).

Roe v. Wade
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case establishing that most laws against abortion violate a constitutional right to privacy, overturning all state laws outlawing or restricting abortion. It is one of the most controversial decisions in Supreme Court history.
Bowers v. Hardwick
was a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of a Georgia sodomy law that criminalized oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults. Seventeen years later the Supreme Court directly overruled Bowers in the Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003) decision and held that such laws are unconstitutional. (See judicial review.)
Lawrence v. Texas
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case. In the 6-3 ruling, the justices struck down the criminal prohibition of homosexual sodomy in Texas. The court had previously addressed the same issue in 1986 in Bowers v. Hardwick, but had upheld the challenged Georgia statute, not finding a constitutional protection of sexual privacy.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in which the constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state regulations regarding abortion was challenged. The Court's lead plurality opinion upheld the right to have an abortion but lowered the standard for analyzing restrictions of that right, invalidating one regulation but upholding the others.
Reed v. Reed
was an Equal Protection case in the United States in which the Supreme Court ruled that the administrators of estates cannot be named in a way that discriminates between sexes. After the death of their adopted son, Sally and Cecil Reed sought to be named the administrator of their son's estate; the Reeds were separated. The Idaho Probate Court specified that "males must be preferred to females" in appointing administrators of estates, so Cecil was appointed administrator. In a unanimous decision, the Court held that the law's dissimilar treatment of men and women was unconstitutional.
Virginia v. US
the Supreme Court of the United States struck down the Virginia Military Institute's long-standing male-only admission policy in a 7-1 decision. (Justice Clarence Thomas recused himself from the case because his son attended the institution.)
Mapp v. Ohio
was a landmark case in the area of U.S. criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that the Fourth Amendment protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" must be extended to states as well as the federal government.
Gideon v. Wainwright
was a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required by the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution to provide lawyers for defendants in criminal cases unable to afford their own attorneys.
Baker v. Carr
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case which decided that reapportionment issues (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide reapportionment cases. The defendants unsuccessfully argued that reapportionment of legislative districts is a "political question," and hence not a question which may be resolved by federal courts.
Reynolds v. Sims
was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that state legislature districts had to be roughly equal in population.
Schenck v. US
was a United States Supreme Court decision concerning whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. The defendant, Charles Schenck, a Socialist, had circulated a flyer to recently drafted men.

The Court, in a unanimous opinion written by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., held that Schenck's conviction was constitutional. The First Amendment did not protect speech encouraging insubordination
Abrams v. US
was a decision of the United States Supreme Court involving the Sedition Act of 1918, which made it a criminal offense to criticize the U.S. federal government. The Court ruled 7-2 that the Act did not violate civil rights under the First Amendment, with Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis dissenting. The case was overturned during the Vietnam War era.
Cohen v. California
Paul Robert Cohen, 19, was arrested for wearing a jacket with the words "Fuck the Draft" inside the Los Angeles Courthouse.

The Court, by a vote of 5-4 and per Justice John Marshall Harlan II, overturned the appellate court's ruling. "Absent a more particularized and compelling reason for its actions," it said, "the State may not, consistently with the First Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment, make the simple public display of this single four-letter expletive a criminal offense."
Brandenberg v. Ohio
was a United States Supreme Court case based on the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It held that government cannot punish inflammatory speech unless it is directed to inciting and likely to incite imminent lawless action.
Tinker v. Des moines
was a United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a decision defining the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. It is considered one of the Court's more controversial decisions of the 1960s regarding freedom of speech. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether or not a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
Bethel v. Fraser
On April 26, 1983, Matthew Fraser, a Spanaway, Washington high school senior, gave a speech nominating classmate Jeff Kuhlman for Associated Student Body Vice President. The speech was filled with sexual innuendo, but not obscenity, prompting disciplinary action from the administration

a partial reversal of tinker v. des moines
Minersville School District v. Gobitis
was a U.S. Supreme Court case involving a Jehovah's Witness named Gobitas (the name was misspelled), in which the court had held that Witnesses could be forced against their will to pay homage to the flag. This decision had led to increased persecution of Witnesses.
West Virginia v. Barnette
), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that held that the First Amendment to the United States Constitution protected students from being forced to salute the American flag and say the Pledge of Allegiance in school.
Engel v. Vitale
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and require its recitation in public schools, even when it is relatively non-denominational and students may excuse themselves from participation. This was decided in a vote of 6-1, with Justices Frankfurter and White unable to vote.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
the Supreme Court of the United States reversed a panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit that had held that Pennsylvania's 1968 Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which allowed the state Superintendent of Public Instruction to reimburse nonpublic schools (most of which were Catholic) for teachers' salaries, textbooks and instructional materials, did not violate the Establishment or Free Exercise clauses of the First Amendment. The decision also upheld a decision of the First Circuit, which had struck down the Rhode Island Salary Supplement Act providing state funds to supplement salaries at nonpublic elementary schools by 15%. As in Pennsylvania, most of these funds were spent on Catholic schools.
Wallace v. Jaffree
was a United States Supreme Court case deciding on the issue of silent school prayer.

Lynch v. Donnelly
Nativity scene is ok
Lee v. Weisman
was a United States Supreme Court decision regarding school prayer. It was the first major school prayer case decided by the conservative Rehnquist Court. It involved prayers led by religious authority figures at public school graduation ceremonies, and was slated to be a loss for the separationist position.
Santa Fe School District v. Doe
was a case heard before the United States Supreme Court. It ruled that a policy permitting student-led, student-initiated prayer at football games violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
Mccreary County Kentucky v. ACLU
is a case which was argued before the Supreme Court of the United States on March 2, 2005. At issue is whether government-sponsored displays of the Ten Commandments in county courthouses violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
Van Orden v. Perry
was argued before the Supreme Court of the United States on March 2, 2005. At issue was whether a government-sponsored display of the Ten Commandments at the Texas State Capitol in Austin violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
Furman v. Georgia
was a United States Supreme Court decision that ruled on the requirement for a degree of consistency in the application of the death penalty. Jackson v. Georgia and Branch v. Texas, death sentences for rape, had the same result applied to them as part of a combined decision and ruling.
Gregg v. Georgia
was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision which lifted the de facto moratorium on capital punishment in the United States that had resulted from the decision in Furman v. Georgia (1972).
Atkins v. Virginia
the Supreme Court of the United States (in a 6 to 3 decision) ruled that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment's ban on cruel and unusual punishments.
McCleskey v. Kemp
Blacks that kill whites are more likely to get death penalty? court says thats not true.
Roper v. Simmons
) was a case before the Supreme Court of the United States, which ruled on March 1, 2005, that it is unconstitutional to impose capital punishment for crimes committed while under the age of 18, in a 5-4 decision