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6 Cards in this Set

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Ethnocentric Bias
the belief that your own cultural way of acting is right and normal and comparing all other cultures to your own.
One should try to treat their own culture as objectively as you treat others.
Collectivist Culture
togetherness; group benefit of working together harmoniously overrides individual personal achievement. not focusing on your special and unique qualities as an individual but focusing on your place in the group and the greater good.
Focusing on personal achievement would seem selfish and disrespectful in a collective culture.
Individualistic Culture
Western societies focus on individual and his dreams, goals and achievements. The individual has a right to make their own choices. Personal goals is often the center of conversation in an individualistic culture.
Polychronic Time
time is not linear, but rather a rotation of the seasons and open ended. independent and unconnected tasks can be done at the same time such as multiple conversations with different people at the same time. Promptness is not particularly important and such a value is viewed as childishly impatient in poly-chronic cultures. Meals might take 3 hours and lateness won't affect people's perceptions of professionalism. Getting to the point of a meeting or conversation can take a lot of time. High-context societies. Cell phone use (technology) has altered our perception of time and face-to-face conversations are often interrupted to answer a phone call. More concerned with keeping people happy than keeping time - not focusing obsessively on the task.
Several different cultures exist within one country - smaller cultures within a large mass. Psychological boundaries get drawn by habits and practices of coms. Relational groups that transact their business in communicative patterns/codes/styles. Some scholars talk about speech communities with membership defined in terms of speaking patterns and styles that reinforce that particular culture.
Speech Codes
a culture's verbalization of meaning and symbols - a built in understanding of the world that guide particular talk patterns people use in conversation. Assumptions the culture takes for granted. Creates membership within a given culture.

Restricted Code: invisible/unmarked elements of speech. Community relationships, values and ideas emphasized. Conservative, rule-based way of acting in the world.

Elaborated Code: speech is a way for people to differentiate between their unique personalities. make fewer appeals to authority and stress importance of individuals to make up their own minds.