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19 Cards in this Set

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Agger
There are various ways of looking at cultural studies (From Marxist, Feminits, Postmodern etc. Perspectives)

interdisciplinary and challenges disciplinarity,

against institutionalization of Cultural Studies

Cultural Studies needs to be politically engaging
What is the Scope of Cultural Studies
Interdiciplinary aproach to culture

Studies everday life
Resists the bariers between high and low culture

Resists Cannonization
Canon
Generalized law or principal by which things are judged.
Hegemony
is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force,

the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage

cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group.

affects commonplace patterns of thought:

hegemony controls the way new ideas are rejected or become naturalized in a process that subtly alters notions of common sense in a given society.

Hegemony results in the empowerment of certain cultural beliefs, values, and practices to the submersion and partial exclusion of others.

Hegemony influences the perspective of mainstream history, as history is written by the victors for a congruent readership.
How does Cultural Studies look at culture?
Culture is not the traditional received high culture but includes popular culture

CS includes a broad ensemble of everyday discursive practices outside what is known as official culture

Culture as a baby boomer phenomenon closely related to mass media especially visual ones
What Led to the Rise of Cultural Studies
Post-structural anthropology and sociology.

After WW2 there is a change in perspective on culture due to expansion of information technology.

The rise of people only getting cultural information from hegemonized TV

Marxist would say it is a way for people to justify their fascination with mass culture.
Why is there a conflict of meaning when approaching culture?
Because of the subject position we occupy depending on race, class, gender, nation etc.

Hegemony (defining culture from the top-down=hegemony

Counter hegemony resists this definition) ex. Feminism
How does Cultural Studies intervene in the academy?
Broadens the meaning of culture

Decenters the hierarchy between high and low cultures and what can be included in curricula

Opens a space for marginalized authors and underrepresented groups

Challenges old curricula and modes of literary production

Decanonizes and detextualizes culture
What is the relationship between cultural studies and popular culture?
1958 Britain
Hoggart and Raymond Williams include working class culture in the study of what is culture

Raymond Williams says that during the 19th century, culture was separated from society and culture meant ‘high culture’ “stuff that resided in museums and universities”

Cultural studies engagement of the popular and the ‘ordinary’ is to understand the power relations that shape the most intimate details of our lives.
How can globalization be defined?
Globalization is the worldwide process of homogenizing prices, products, wages.

Globalization relies on three forces for development: the role of human migration, international trade, and rapid movements of capital and integration of financial markets.

Miyoshi says that it is not “a seamless unity in which everyone equally participates in the economy.

Industrial development is uneven and means that parts of the world merely serve the benefits of industrial capital
Appropriation
Taking or using something without someones permission.
Commodity
An item that is bought and sold, particularly raw materials.

Commodification (n) to treat something as a commodity
Colonialism
A policy in which a country rules other nations and develops trade for its own benefit
What are the main consequences of transnational corporatism as defined by Miyoshi?
Downsizing of the labor force and its impact

Downsizing is not the result of negative performance of the corporations rather the opposite

The population mostly affected by the layoffs are the less educated

The result is the widening gap between rich and poor, the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer

The operations of transnational corporations are a continuation of colonialism

Culture itself becomes a commodity
What solutions does Hetata propose?
create a diversified and humanized global culture

We can correct our distorted images by using film and other media

The academy needs to open more to the outside world/life

We need to be aware of the problem of representation; we should not claim to represent the other but let them represent themselves
How does Agger define postmodernism and poststructuralism and their contribution to cultural studies?
Poststructuralism is a theory of knowledge and language
• Postmodernism is a theory of cultural, intellectual, and societal discontinuity
• Both posts mistrust method
• Postmodernism broadens cultural studies too include non-literary texts like film and television
How is the field of cultural studies influenced by deconstruction?
It gives us a new way of reading cultural texts particularly with respect to context and subtext

Draws attention to the fact that meaning is structured by the differential terms of arbitrary sign systems

Deconstruction shows us that any closure, fixity, decidability is an illusion

A deconstructive reading of culture also implicates the reader in the very process of cultural production so much so that reading becomes another act of writing

Deconstruction considers culture as a text and cultural texts as undecidable
What are the main concerns of the feminist cultural project? Give and discuss specific examples.
To expose male hegemony

To give voice or make woman’s voice heard

To close the gap between political and academic feminist criticism

To revise the received canon and open it more for women representation
What are some of the methods that feminists have adopted to discuss the representation of women in culture?
Focuses on and exposes the misrepresentation of women in culture

Destabilizes traditional gender roles and reject the sexualization of women in culture

woman is looked at as text

use a deconstructionist method to destabilize the established hierarchy between man and woman and to subvert man’s power